Posted on: July 28, 2010

AZAM KHAN, Dy. Auditor General

Growth and Development of Electronic Media in Pakistan:
How it can enhance national Cohesion and Integration?
Muhammad Azam Khan


A paper submitted to the Faculty of the National Management College, Lahore, in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the 92nd   National Management Course.
The contents of this paper are the end product of my own efforts and research and reflect my own personal views and are not necessarily endorsed by the College.
Date 21st June 2010
Paper supervised by:
Mrs. Rashida Bokhari
Directing Staff

Being participant of 92nd  National Management Course  at the National Management College of the National School of Public Policy, Lahore, I am assigned the topic of Individual Research Paper titled, “Growth and Development of Electronic Media in Pakistan: How it can Enhance National Cohesion and Integration?”
The growth of electronic media over past few decades is very rapid in Pakistan. The media can impact public opinion in a significant manner. In Pakistan the national integration and cohesion, is indeed a serious issue, which needs to be analyzed. The media’s extraordinary growth can impact this problem. The media is being considered as a fourth pillar of the state.
In this study a sincere effort has been made in a comprehensive but concise way to analyze the dimensions of “fault lines” in national cohesion and integration that occurred during the last over 60 years. The role of electronic media to enhance the national cohesion and integration has been analyzed in this study. The same has been analyzed in historical, socio-political, socio-economic, governance and leadership context. From this analysis, a starting point, as I perceive can be made to think various aspects concerning national cohesion and integration.  In the end the analysis is concluded and some   recommendations have been made.
I am grateful and deeply indebted to professional guidance extended by Dr. Sikander Hayat, Dean National School of Public Policy, for his encouragement at all stages in carrying out this research and making it possible. I am grateful to Mrs. Rashida Bokhari for her vision and hard work in guiding me on the theme of the paper during the process. She was always critical but professional in her outlook that enabled me to complete this research as per requirements. I am thankful to Prof. Sajjad Naseer and Dr Riffat S. Hussain, for sharing socio political outlook and focused in depth analysis of Pakistani Society. I am also grateful to Ms. Naeema and her team for the assistance extended for library research.

The cultural, demographic, linguistic and behavioural manifestations do indicate fault-lines in national cohesiveness.  The uncertainty about peace, security, bad-governance and system of justice has generated a sense of deprivation in the society. The stake holders in maintenance of national cohesion and integration are State Institutions, Judiciary, Defence Forces, Law and Order Machinery, Political Parties, Civil Society, Public Opinion Groups, and electronic media. The growth and development of electronic media as fourth pillar of the state is a reality. The television is the most favoured medium of communication with a large number of viewer ship with significant results. The national cohesion and integration demonstrate fault lines that threaten very existence of the state. The study is focused around questions of growth of electronic media in Pakistan and the role of electronic media to enhance national cohesion and integration. The National Integration for Pakistan does not mean creating ethnic or national homogeneity throughout the country; rather it only means establishing a bond that may bind the population in common political and social structures, statehood, a sense of identity and of belonging together.
The Questions raised about Pakistan today are; will it survive as an independent country? Will it be prosperous and stable? Invariably these questions concern the prospects of bringing about good governance, reducing poverty, fostering honest leadership, controlling corruption, and reforming legal and moral institutions. The positive and negative role of media has been highlighted in the study. It has been established that the electronic media has a role to play for resolution of problems being faced by Pakistan i.e. political instability, bad governance, weak economy, sectarian and ethnic divide/religious activism, population growth, friction between the provinces and centre, violence and intolerance in the society, lack of national integration and harmony etc.. The impression that the media could solely and independently play a role in making society   and the people to behave in a certain way, cannot succeed, there appears no empirical evidence to support this.We have to examine what causes of a certain phenomena, there may be some more research to study about casualty. What causes something to happen? The healthy relationship between electronic media and the government and its agencies is essential for accurate dissemination of news.  There is need to draw a fine balance between the excess and denial of freedom to the media. It has been found that government need to evolve a new media policy.

Table of Contents
1.1 What is electronic media? 5
1.2  Influence of electronic media 5
1.3  Functions of electronic media. 6
1.4 Growth of electronic media in Pakistan 6
1.5  Types of   electronic media 7
1.6  The media and the ground realities 8
1.7 Pakistan electronic media regulatory authority 8
2.1 What is National Integration? 10
2.2 Fault Lines in National Cohesion and Integration in Pakistan 11
2.3 Socio-Political Factors 11
2.4. Socio – Economic Factors 14
3.1 Electronic media’s impact on Pakistani society 16
3.2 Positive impact of electronic media 17
3.3 Negative impact of electronic media 18
4.1  Analysis of role of electronic media 20
4.2 The role of electronic media to create values of nationalism 21
4.3 The role of electronic media to enhance national cohesion and integration 21

The theme of the paper is built around three fundamental assumptions. First, Pakistani society manifest deficient levels of maturity in the domain of integration and cohesion. It may have multiple causative factors, starting from constitutional framework, including defective social landscape to the directionless political process. The institutional infrastructure is weak; the political institutions retard the political movement of the society. The writ of the government is challenged. The culture of civic responsibility remains overwhelmed by individualistic motives for gains and shortcuts instead of national aims and objectives. Whether the vision of a ‘cohesive society’ based on rule of law can be achieved? Secondly, the societal dilemmas are, rooted in leadership crisis, lack of continuity in democratic process, and socio- economic imbalances. Whether we can make a quantum jump to overcome the deficiencies? Thirdly, the phenomenal progress made by electronic media in the last decade raises questions as to how this new ‘power house’ can be harnessed in promoting the process of national integration and cohesiveness aiming at social development?
The study has pointed out fault lines in national cohesion and integration. It has revealed that the uncertainty about peace, security, bad-governance and system of justice has generated a sense of deprivation in the society. The stake holders in maintenance of national cohesion and integration are State Institutions, Judiciary, Defence Forces, Law and Order Machinery, Political Parties, Civil Society, Public Opinion Groups, and electronic media. The electronic media in Pakistan as a source of immense influence and change has also come and has to stay as fourth pillar of the State. The state policies against the aspirations of people and pressure groups are being exposed in the electronic media. The electronic media has also occupied globally a significant and very central position.
The study has also focused on role of electronic media in alleviation of the socio-political problems of Pakistani society.   The electronic media has emerged as an effective tool, globally, and at home for building favourable / unfavourable opinions and attitudes of the masses for the preferred themes, to achieve the desired objectives. If applied positively, its contribution in achieving national integration, socio-economic uplift and in building a cohesive, tolerant and forward looking society cannot be over emphasized.
Statement of the Problem
This paper seeks to study the growth of electronic media in Pakistan; to identify the fault lines that have threatened the national cohesion and integration; to review the present role of electronic media: also to determine whether electronic media can play a role in national cohesion and integration in Pakistan? To analyse a possible mechanism, how the electronic media can enhance national cohesion and integration?
Significance and scope of the Study
The significance of this study emerges from the fact the electronic media can impact the public opinion and perception. The electronic media can play a pivotal and leading role, given the right direction to make Pakistani society cohesive, integrated vibrant, progressive and tolerant society. The scope of study is an analysis of the factors causing disintegration and in- cohesiveness in society, to identify their causes and impact on national cohesion and integration. The scope of study includes possible role of electronic media to rectify these fault lines to bring cohesion and integration in the society.
Outline of the paper
The study comprises four sections. The first section is devoted to Growth of Electronic Media in Pakistan while the second section is titled Fault Lines in National Cohesion and Integration  The third section discusses the Present Status of Electronic Media in Pakistani Society. An analysis of the Role of Electronic Media to Enhance National Cohesion and Integration is the theme of the fourth section .Finally, the study shell draw conclusion and makes certain recommendations.
The exploratory and analytical methodology is followed during the study. While remaining within the permissible scope of the study, an effort has been made to include all relevant and significant dimensions and features of electronic media and its growth in Pakistan.  The study is mainly based on relevant books mostly available in the Library of National Management College, articles in national newspapers and journals. The use of internet during the study has been made to access different sources and material related to the topic and also the views of people of different perspectives and backgrounds have also been obtained.
Review of the Literature
“Pakistan Social and Cultural transformations in a Muslim nation by Muhammad A. Qadeer 2006 ”, this book directly deals with Pakistani society. It has explained the determinants of Pakistani society from individual to national level. The author also talks of various social problems being faced by Pakistani society. This book shows how modernization as well as Islamization is simultaneously acting as process of social transformation in Pakistan. It concludes by discussing likely future development in Pakistan.
Post Seminar Report, Seminar Titled “Role of Media: Promoting the Culture of Mutual Tolerance, Civic Responsibility and Rule of Law” National Defence University Islamabad (31st December 2009)  the post seminar report provides much focused insight to understand the role of electronic media in our context. The seminar was aimed at generating intellectual debate on contemporary societal dilemmas in the way of the nation’s advancement and on how best the powerful media could be harnessed for a remedial course and our societal renaissance. The growth of media especially in electronic domain; its profile: makeup and interests represented; the emergence of media as a ‘new power house’ together with inherent limitation; and the concept of responsibility in the democratic order have been deliberated eminently in this report.
Electronic Media issues and innovations by Rashmi Sharma   2007 tell us Electronic Media are those communication mediums which are based on electronic or electromechanical means of production and most often distinguished from print media. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the general public worldwide include radio, sound recordings, television, video recording and streaming internet content. This book is a research work directly linked with the present paper.
Development   Communication, Source Book by Paolo Mefalopulous   2008.  This is a World Bank publication. This source book offers a useful source for those interested in understanding how development communication can work as a foundation for effective and ethical basis for a society, also provide insight to understand impact of communication, on society.
Journalism for All by Dr. Mehdi Hassan and Dr. Abdus Salam Khurshid    1991. This book is about creation of Pakistan and development of journalism and Mass Communication in Pakistan.
Media and Peace in South Asia  Edited by Imtiaz Alam  2006. The south Asian policies analysis (Safna). The Article media and Reconciliation by Khalid Ahmad = A critical Evaluation of Media by Raziuddin Ahmad. Develop insight the role of electronic media in transitional society like Pakistan.

1.1 What is electronic media?
“Electronic Media” are those communication mediums which are based on electronic or electromechanical means of production and most often distinguished from print media. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the general public worldwide include radio, sound recordings, television, video recording and streaming internet content” . It denotes, “the main means of communicating with large number of people, especially television, radio, internet and satellite”. The electronic media have four basic functions; to inform, entertain, educate and influence the public opinion.
The 20th century can be termed as the century of communication. The main mean of mass communication grew in succession as the century unfolded. Motion pictures arrived on scene in the first decade of this century. Regular radio broadcasts started in 1920s. Television entered the arena in 1940s, followed by cable television in 1950s, and satellite television in 1970s. Lastly the personal computer gave access to Internet in 1980s. It transformed the interconnected computer networks through World Wide Web by the 1990s.
2  Influence of electronic media
In the last 50 years the media influence has grown significantly with the advance of technology, first there was the telegraph, then the radio, the newspaper, magazines, television and now the internet. We live in a society that depends on information and communication to keep moving in the right direction and do our daily activities like work, entertainment, health care, education, personal relationships, travelling and anything else that we have to do. “What we need to be aware is that most of our decisions, beliefs and values are based on what we know for a fact, our assumptions and our own experience. In our work we usually know what we have to do base on our experience and studies, however on our daily lives we rely on the media to get the current news and facts about what is important and what we should be aware of.”  We have put our trust on the media as an authority to give us news, entertainment and education. However, the influence of mass media on our kids, teenagers and society is so big that we should know how it really works.
The electronic media has touched every sphere of the human aspect. In the present times, information and technology are interwoven with the society’s economic progress. The evolution of electronic media has had an overwhelming impact on the society. The Opportunities of communication have broken all barriers across national boundaries and have led to the germination of new ideas through the cross pollination of cultures. Electronic information has had a positive impact in the promotion of various social regimes.
1.3  Functions of electronic media.
The primary functions of electronic media are; to inform, educate, influence and entertain. This means of communication has maximum size of audience, its reach, coverage and effectiveness of its impact is increasing. Following is a brief description of some of the functions of the electronic media:-
To Provide Information. The provision of reliable verifiable; adequate and complete information is one of the primary functions of the electronic media, objectivity is expected in arranging information for the population.
To Provide  Education . The electronic media can become a powerful and economical tool for education and has a great potential if used imaginatively and with vision. The media can also be used to raise awareness and educate the masses to overcome various social problems and development of civic sense.
To Influence Public Opinion. The revolution in information technology and potential of media to influence  and analyze various national and international issues, suggest various options, weigh the best option to arrive at the correct solutions to guide their audience.
To Entertain.   The electronic media can cater for a wide range of entertainments for tastes and requirements of almost all the segments of the society.
1.4 Growth of electronic media in Pakistan
The electronic media in Pakistan has made rapid progress. Only three or four decades ago, radio and state owned TV was considered to be the main sources of information. Today, we have more than 77 Satellite TV Channels, 2346 cable operators, 28 landing TV Channels from abroad like BBC, CNN, Sky, Star etc. and more than 129 FM Stations(on air and in some cases licences issued) including 46 Radio Channels. The investment this year is expected US$ 1.5 billion. Total investment in this sector is US$ 2.5 billion. The new jobs likely to be created are 150000. The indirect employment is 7 million. The advertisement market in 2008 was US$ 431 Million and in 2009 it was estimated as US$ 691 million. This growth has made available more knowledge and up to date information in all spheres of life to the general public.
TV started its test transmissions in 1964. Pakistan Television Corporation was incorporated as a joint stock company in 1967 and in 1984 it was converted into a corporation under the Companies Ordinance. PTV has been a great source of entertainment. TV has also effectively disseminated information on a variety of subjects to its viewers. However, the objectives set out for PTV at the time of its inception were:-
• Instruction and enlightenment.
• Enrichment of knowledge and information.
• Wholesome entertainment.
• Promotion of national outlook and integration.
• Presentation of news in a fair, objective, factual manner free from deception by implication and omission.
1.5  Types of   electronic media
Radio. In Pakistan like other developing countries, radio is the major source of information and entertainment due to its reach to the far flung areas and being relatively economical.  Broadcasts carry news, analyses, commentaries and advertisements. This medium, however, is losing attraction in the public.
Television. TV due to its potentials to offer a greater variety than other elements of electronic media has become the strongest form of media to perform all four functions, i.e. information, education, influence and entertainment.
Internet. Internet is the latest addition into the elements of medium of electronic communication. It is swiftly bringing a historic shift in the dynamics and profile of the global information sector. The medium also provides instant access to the largest data bases and archives of information around the world.
1.6  The media and the ground realities
The most critical obligation of electronic media is to act as the custodian of the facts. There are certain realities and electronic media’s mindset and peculiarities, which to some extent are universal. The electronic media is a business, a billion dollar industry and thus its primary motive remains to earn money and not harmonize the society. Due to intense competition in the field of electronic media industry, media has to be competitive; to be “Exclusive and First”. The electronic media often looks for controversy, sensationalism and negative news to make headlines. In some cases the electronic   media feels that it has the right to interpret what is good or bad for society using its own standards.
The electronic Media was primarily and popularly used by our previous regimes as tool of self propaganda, the quality of news poor, unreliable and un-imaginative presentation of events and stories, ultimately losing the confidence of general public. Introduction of Satellite TV, Cable and Private Channels and Dish widened the scope of awareness of people. The Government of Pakistan realized the sensitivity and potential of private electronic media which could not be avoided through State controlled TV only. The governmental policies regarding electronic media  took a different direction, to regulate this sector.
1.7 Pakistan electronic media regulatory authority
The objective of PEMRA was to regulate the electronic media i.e.  Radio and TV. This was necessitated by the decision to allow a large number of private TV and radio channels. The Ordinance also gives a Code of Conduct for media broadcasters/ cable TV operators.
“This Regulatory Body was established under the PEMRA Ordinance 2002, having the following goals in mind”
i) Improve the standards of information, education and entertainment.
ii) Enlarge the choice available to the people of Pakistan in the media for news, current affairs, religious knowledge, art, culture, science, technology, economic development, social sector concerns, music, sports, drama and other subjects of public and national interest.
iii) Facilitate the devolution of responsibility and power to the grass roots by improving the access of the people to mass media at the local and community level.
iv) Ensure accountability, transparency and good governance by optimization of the free flow of information.
In a democratic country like Pakistan where freedom of speech and expression is guaranteed to every citizen by the Constitution. This fundamental right has to be exercised by all  with due care to ensure that it may not incite violence, terrorism, racial, ethnic or religious discrimination, sectarianism, extremism, militancy, hatred, pornography, obscenity, vulgarity or anything offensive to the commonly accepted standards of decency. Similarly, the sanctity of national institutions needs to be respected at all costs. In this regard, PEMRA has formulated a Code of Conduct for the broadcasters. However, the concept of Self-Regulation is promoted to encourage the broadcasters to formulate the rules of the game, themselves.
2.1 What is National Integration?
The concept of National Integration is subject to a wide range of interpretations. However, two definitions which catch the essential spirit of the concept include, “The creation of a National Political System which supersedes or incorporates all the regional sub-cultures” , and the creation of a “Common national consciousness, a common national consensus and a common national identity” . These two definitions appear adequate for working purposes as they underline both the political as well as the socio-cultural ingredients of the process of integration. National cohesion refers to the bonds or “glue” that binds members of society, community or other groups together. The most obvious bonds are ideological, ethnic, linguistic, religious, cultural and historic. However, the homogeneity of a nation is no guarantee of successfully bonding together as a cohesive whole. “The extent of the threat posed to the integrity of a state by the multiplicity of languages, races, religions etc., depends on a variety of factors but there are basically two requisites (conflict of ideology and economic decline) which must be present before a country may be deemed to be faced with a problem of national disunity.”  The Pakistani society is in transition, and it faces challenges but still the national interest is to make Pakistan as a unity-in-diversity and there is an ever-growing need to develop a harmonious society. “The balance sheet of social changes in Pakistani society over the past half century has both cost and benefits. Pakistani society has split into class-cum-lifestyle segments. Its social institutions do not dovetail into each other; instead fissures of institutional lag run through them. Its cohesiveness has given way to the fragmentation and the erosion of value and moral consensus”.
2.2 Fault Lines in National Cohesion and Integration in Pakistan
Integration or cohesion is an ideal, “it is not a thing but a process. It is dynamism ruled by an inner necessity, being guided in a direction chosen by itself as a goal or rather a series of goals leading to a certain direction ”. National integration and social cohesion is the capacity of a society to ensure the welfare of its all members, minimize disparities and avoid polarization. A cohesive society is mutually supportive community of free individuals, pursuing these common goals by democratic means. National integration and social cohesion is at risk in Pakistan because of many impeding factors, which originate within the country or influenced by external reasons. It may also be a complex outcome of interaction between the country forces and stresses and influences of global scenario. The socio-political factors and socio-economic factors as listed below have contributed to cause fault lines in national cohesion and integration.
2.3 Socio-Political Factors
Intolerance and near absence of civic responsibility, now manifested in our society is indeed the outcome of a hierarchical structure and social barriers, further and enforced by policy approaches in the 80s. Politicizing of religion and language is one major source of fractionalization.  “Presently, the culture and society of Pakistan are in the grip of an unprecedented upheaval. In the post 9/11 world, the political, religious, and the social dynamics in Pakistan have been under major internal transformation and intense international scrutiny. Ethnic and sectarian violence which ravaged the country for the last two decades has sharply polarized the society. Various Islamic religious groups jostle violently for power. Religious faith, usually a matter of personal redemption, is flagrantly flaunted and a stunning lack of tolerance for difference increasingly defines Pakistani society.”
Constitutional Crisis. The non-agreement and lack of consensus on various revisions and amendments in 1973 constitution remained a contentious issue among the federating units since long. The delayed process of reconciliation and agreement, on this only document to govern the state is a serious threat to national cohesion and integration.
Provincialism. Imbedded strides of sub national identities engraved into the fabric of the provinces pose an existential threat to national cohesion. This issue is even more pronounced in case of smaller provinces like Khyber Pukhtunwa and Balochistan. Identity crisis prevailing with in the provinces is tarnishing the very physiology of democracy in essence and in dispensation at National level. There are contradictions between national and provincial interests, particularly in matte relating to language, ethnicity, identity, and power. There are small Political groups and movements agitating for their rights, including Baloch issue. Nevertheless, such provincial or regional sentiments swirl within the national cultural pool.
Sectarian Intolerance. The division of society on the basis of sects, tribes, colour and creed gives rise to intolerance towards other sects. The violence on sectarianism basis is on the rise. The religious intolerance and extremism, and over emphasis on religious identities due to that  Pakistani society is facing continuous challenge of terrorism in the name of religion and belief.
Political Process and Direction.  The directionless political system rarely delivers to the satisfaction of voters.  Various derivations of political process have no regard for national objectives and national interests and efforts for achievement of these goals for the country are hardly visible. The political system as a whole is driven by conflicting vested interests. The political parties lack democratic norms in their rank and file.
Leadership Style and Direction. The political leadership as a whole has failed to satisfy the masses. The trust deficit between the leadership and the people has widened, and is increasing with the passage of time.  The social and political positions of so-called ruling elites are just a symbol of false pride without much regard for vision and justice.
Non-State Actors. Unorganized political parties have increased the influence of non-state actors in national politics, thereby vested interests are perpetuated, at the cost of national interests.
Challenges to the Writ of the Government. The manifestation of this divide is the challenge to the writ of the State in FATA and Malakand Division where state infrastructure of governance has been uprooted, the power elite has been eliminated (either by murder or forced migration) new and parallel structures have been created and the application of Constitution is challenged. “The so-called Islamic fundamentalists have always been influential in the largely poor, illiterate, and rural Pakistan society. These groups represent a variety of power centres based on an array of belief systems from within Islam. Historically, none of these groups have had much success at the ballot box, but with a strong core of ‘true believers’ with blind faith and unflinching allegiance, they have often been able to display enough Street power to disrupt civil life. Since the war of independence in neighbouring Afghanistan in the 1980s, these religious groups have been encouraged and aided by the government of Pakistan and the US State Department. As a result they have ‘flourished and proliferated under the exhilarating notion of jihad. The border between Afghanistan and Pakistan has been porous for centuries because of the unusual terrain that facilitates traffic and a common tribal ethos that informs the lives of the bordering populace. With the rapid and fearsome Talibanization of Afghanistan and the Mullahisation of Pakistan, the borders for all practical and ideological purposes dissolved, and these processes played a vital role in the fluctuating social ethos of Pakistan.”
War against Terrorism. The country is facing various challenges. The multiple threats and constant pressures are very serious since post 9/11 due to Pakistan’s commitment with West for fight against terrorism. This involvement is viewed as being done to oblige the West. The suicidal attacks and drone attacks are the result of this involvement.
Feudalism / Tribalism.  In Pakistan the feudal and tribal society where rights of human being are violated is a matter of concern, people are not free to express their desire to govern. In such circumstances the leadership style is power centred and feudal in character, this leadership enjoys respect because of fear, and not because of trust. “National and regional culture has, at various times, interwoven and competed with each other. In times when centralization is the ideological thrust, national themes and institutions are in the ascendancy, but when the pendulum swings toward decentralization, regional and ethnic societies and cultures reassert their autonomy. The political ideologies and movements that shift the balance between national and regional social and cultural systems are the markers of Pakistan’s social change.”
Role of Madrassa. There is little control of government over madrassas in the country, these madras do pose a threat to the cohesion of the society in Pakistan, if not regulated adequately.
2.4. Socio – Economic Factors
Socio – Economic disparities. The poverty and inflation has caused disparities in the society. The people living below the poverty line have increased in number. The unemployment and low income has caused economic imbalance in the society. The division of society and decline in socio-economic standards have adversely impacted the quality of life.
Bad Governance. Undemocratic & non-participatory governance.
.The perception of governance leading to good governance is flouted; concepts of transparency and accountability are misleading in Pakistani experience. The accountability is selective and by choice, its aim is not to reform the society of negative practices, but to benefit the fittest and powerful. The people have no faith in the system of governance and accountability.
Violation of Human Rights. The human rights violation is on the increase, the weaker segments of the population even do not get the rights given in the constitution and the irony remains ignorance on their part of basic rights bestowed by the constitution. “The perception of women as having a lower status at all levels is the principle barrier in the way of gender equality and is reinforced by customary practises and the laws of the land. Women education, health, labour force participation, mobility, decision making etc, all reflect the unique situation of women in Pakistan.”
Personal Security Perception. The constant engagement of population in this war against terrorism has changed its perception of personal security. The people have doubts about the success of governmental policies.
Loyalty towards State /individualistic behaviour. The notion of loyalty towards state is blurred, people’s expectation of justice and fair play are shattered, and therefore, their loyalty towards State is also undermined. The individualism has replaced collectivism; the bigger societal group is vanished. The conflicts of values, beliefs, and other sociological imbalances has damaged the national fabric and has caused segmentation on the basis of caste and class
Justice and Rule of law. The justice is uncertain; the rules of game are settled by abuse of power. The respect for justice is linked with status and position of the seeker. The attitude towards Rule of Law is very negative, law breaking is considered as a pride for the powerful. Due to delayed justice people have lost hope in the system to get justice.
Violence against Women and minorities “Many Analysts are in agreement that women’s poor status as well as poverty is rooted in social and cultural organization of society”.  The rights of the women are abused, and such abuse is referred to the culture and customs and here- say, this victimization is devoid of any ideological, religious and legal and Constitutional basis. The religious minorities are threatened and do face violence at their religious places, thereby show concern of threat and personal security. “Empowering women is a challenge, requires changes in the existing class and caste based structure and it needs a focused and active public delivery system to ensure that resources and opportunities earmarked for women reach them”
Mistrust in Criminal Justice System. The people do not have trust in criminal justice system, and lack of trust generates uncertainty and confusion in the society. “In Pakistani society, the judiciary plays a pivotal role in articulating and enforcing rules of conduct for its citizens. The judiciary derives its legitimacy and power from the constitution.”

3.1 Electronic media’s impact on Pakistani society
In Pakistan the electronic media is providing information at a very large scale. It is being recognized as contributing significantly in important national issues. It has a  role in  accountability process . The Ptv is pursuing an agenda of social responsibility there are two main challenges of sustainability of democracy and good governance face by the country. In such a scenario, role of media is to facilitate the democracy.  “The social impact of communication and media has seeped deep into social and cultural institutions, paradoxically reviving traditions as well as introducing new practices. Like other processes, communication and information media are bound up with other socio- economic forces, thus making them a strong current of social change.”  The electronic media has created markets resulting in the employment of greater work force in gathering, processing and disseminating information. The electronic media have a vital role to play in the present day world in Pakistan.
The independent electronic media can demonstrate better performance to provide good quality information with its wider reach. “Private channels highlight causes of mis- governance and bring them to the attention of those who are responsible. They can raise public awareness about what the public itself should also do to ensure good governance whether it is correct payment of taxes and bills or issues such as tax avoidance. Such practices should be discouraged and the media has a duty to learn from other countries how this is being done. Private sector media have an enormous educative and mobilizing role to play when it comes to what society do and certainly with respect to highlighting the social responsibility of the media and the citizens.”  “How does Pakistani society hold together despite its ethnic divisions, segmented classes, and fragmented institutions? What are the processes that maintain its social cohesion? This two-part question raises a critical issue about some semblance of functional equilibrium of society.”  The electronic media role give new direction to social behaviour, “by changing the boundaries of social situations, electronic media do not simply give us quicker or more thorough access to events and behaviours. They give us instead, new events and new behaviour. ” Following are some of the roles, both Negative and positive being played by electronic media in Pakistan.
3.2 Positive impact of electronic media
The electronic media direct social change and values. The electronic media may be successful in stimulating the change in the tightly held ideas and rigid attitudes to bring desired change. The media can give direction to social change, and positively guide the society towards the desired goals.
The electronic media and  Policy Dialogue. The electronic media can greatly facilitate this exercise and help the people and government to discuss the issues concerning society, to fulfil their desires and achieve their respective objectives. In Pakistan, the people frequently need to be taken into confidence for the initiation of new policies and initiatives. The objective discussion on political and policy issues media can generate support of people for policies of the government..
Social problems and media. The social problems of our society revolve around ignorance, traditionalism and backwardness. The Pakistani society is in transition, social and ethnic issues have become hard, it happens in many societies, but need to be averted in tolerance. It is an established fact that blaming circumstances, whether disorders or external factors, for what is happening for Pakistan is not going to do any good for Pakistan’s survival as a dignified an honourable nation. The electronic media can partly address the challenge of societal transformation.
The effect of media on national issues. The electronic media has also been highlighting financial irregularities, corrupt practices and inefficiencies of the government functionaries and negative fallouts on the society of the acts of the extremist elements to adopt an appropriate strategy for their eradication. “The media have a measurable effect on public affairs. In the matter of local, national, economic and social issues, they help to create an informed citizenry by clarifying the complex matters of public affairs which exist at the local and national levels. The formation of public opinion towards the civic problems is generated.”  As such the media give the public a better understanding of these issues with which it must deal and influence those who have to resolve these issues.
Electronic media communication and information
Identification of social problems has always been a difficult job as they fall into a grey area and consequently hard to be known. “Advances in communication and information dissemination, such as television, videos, Internet, and CDs, have increased the circulation of ideas, symbols, and images across national and regional borders. People have access to new sources of news, facts, and entertainment. These media help rationalize, redirect, or impede changes that are underway through economic and social development.”
3.3 Negative impact of electronic media
Objectivity and Electronic Media. The objectivity of media is becoming increasingly questionable, the coverage of issues of national interest demand care and restraint. The media in Pakistan is devoid of objectivity, and just telecast such incidents that sometime are not factual.
“The very nature of media is subjective and selective, and therefore suppressive. The general electronic media content do cover non-event-centric aspects of life in Pakistan. There is an imbalanced fixation with events, incidents, accidents and statements.” In order to improve their ratings and enhance viewers ship, the tool of sensationalism is used.  What is important is to think as to what is being done to own sensibilities and social and moral values.
Causing Desperation amongst Nation.  These days no news is good news on Pakistani media. Media has taken away the sense of hope from the masses and has made them over sensitive to their surroundings.
Commercialism and Electronic Media. In today’s world, there is a cross commercialization of the electronic media. Commercially driven, ultra-powerful media primarily serves their sponsors rather than the public. Pakistani media is following the saying, ‘We have no obligation to make history. We have no obligation to make art; we have no obligation to make a  positive statement, to make money is our only objective.
Electronic Media and Talk Shows  Generally the talk shows do not meet basic tests of responsible journalism; fairness, objectivity, balance and differentiation between fact and speculation. Honest discussion must be ruled by reason, not emotion alone. Most anchors try to impose their own perspective, instead of objectivity. “However, unfortunately, this role has moved from delineation to distortion. In essence, distortion is in-built into the very nature of media as it is unable to represent totality of given situation. Therefore, media managers in any ongoing situation in a society should strive to minimize that inherent tendency to distort.”
Polarisation of the Society.  In some instances, the electronic media is accessed by a small segment of society; due to vested interests this group projects its identity disproportionately. The media coverage of such groups is likely to create a   polarized society.
Negative Projection of the Country. All events and happenings in Pakistan are not bad. On the contrary sometime nothing positive is discussed in the electronic media. The projection of crimes and anti- social elements all the time is eroding and diminishing the contours of our true identity across the globe.
Pursuance of Foreign Agenda. It is believed that some of Pakistani media has reportedly links with shady foreign characters, are being funded by different foreign elements and their anchors are on their pay rolls and thus are furthering their anti- state agendas.

4.1  Analysis of role of electronic media
The society and culture are threatened in Pakistan. The patterns of life are changing because of impact of education and electronic media, which have to be facilitated in a positive manner. “With regards to media’s role in promoting national cohesion and unity, Media can shape public perceptions on these issues but does not create or solve these problems. What matter the most are government policies and their impact. Media can be a force for national unity only if it adheres to an agreed code of ethics. Finally, a liberal media policy is a prerequisite to play its due role as a vehicle for national unity and cohesion. We are a highly polarized society, segmented along ethnic, sectarian, ideological and gender issues. Faltering economic growth and stagnant social development have only reinforced these tensions. Without achieving economic solvency and the promise of a better future, our national cohesion will remain under stress. Our biggest fault line is the rising demographic pressure on our resources. We need to launch a sustained media campaign to bring this pressure down. This is one area in which media can play a pivotal and non-partisan role”.
The strengths of electronic media include the viewer ship which has reached to eighty six million according to 2009 Gallop survey .  Since more than 2000, TV cable operators have emerged as audio-video platforms promoting and influencing the society. Meanwhile, increasing influence of internet and TV channels are raising power potential of these audio and video platforms. It is not making values but just making the people aware of events and happenings. The media is often blamed for social ills to the determinant of identifying the real causes of the problems. We have to see the impact of the dynamics of the society, the governmental culture of power and governance, and various policies and actions, instead of putting blame on media. The relationship between electronic media exposure and behaviour is very complex and many other factors do intervene. It has been impossible to prove that the media has direct “effects”; however it has impact on public opinion formation.

4.2 The role of electronic media to create values of nationalism
In this section the role of electronic media in national cohesiveness and integration shall be discussed. It is imperative to define the term “Nation” and” Nationalism”. We know that we are a nation; because we are part of a geographical entity. There is a general consensus that the term nationalism denotes sentiment and consciousness, which bind people together. It reflects a state of mind and a realization nurtured over time. “There is no set pattern or sequence in which the process of National Integration should be attempted. Karl W Deutsch is of the view that just as a house can be built from different construction materials in varying sequences, National Integration too can be attempted in a similar manner” . It may generally involve following five tasks, “the creation of a sense of territorial integrity; the establishment of a national central authority; the bridging the elite-mass gap; the creation of a “minimum “value consensus; and the devising of integrative institutions and behaviour, ensuring adequate representation of all groups in institutions and decision-making processes”.  The electronic media can play an important role in this regard to highlight the values of nationalism, in Pakistan.
4.3 The role of electronic media to enhance national cohesion and integration.
Internal Security and Electronic Media. The Pakistani electronic media can play its role to enhance national cohesion and integration, can give the right direction and can still play a vital role to create awareness in all the spheres of its reach. During the autocratic regimes government tried to curb the media but it showed great resilience and resolve by putting up the resolute battle not only for its own survival but also for the cause of restoration of various democratic institutions.
External Security and Electronic Media. The electronic media can play an important role in mobilizing the masses on sensitive matters, concerning issues of external security. The public opinion support is a significant tool to defend against the external threats. This will sensitize the public at large to the dictates of national security, cohesion and stability. The Pakistani electronic media may achieve this goal without dramatizing and blowing up the issues.
Role of Electronic Media in Democratic Process The electronic media can play a very important role to strengthen the democratic process and democratic institutions in Pakistan. The media can assist in promoting a culture of tolerance, mutual co-existence and may help in evolving national character to strengthen democratic process.
Good Governance and Media. Good governance can be best achieved by strengthening the institutions of the country along with internal and external accountability mechanism. The electronic media as a watch dog can play significant role in scrutinizing the public policies through analysis and also with the feedback of public at large. It is observed that the media reporters are extremely useful sources in providing initial leads to probe into the scandals, mismanagement, nepotism and various corrupt practices causing loss to public exchequer.
Role of Electronic Media in Economic Stability.  The new currency for internal security is economics. The most significant factor contributing to the growth and progress of a nation is its economic strength. The electronic media can project the government economic policies and their impact on the people. The media may also provide analysis of international best practises for economic development. The media role in projecting economic well being of the people can generate cohesiveness in the society.
Role of Electronic Media in Political Stability.  The domestic environment especially the political instability directly affects the national security. Pakistan can project any national policy globally to get support of international community if the internal political environment is peaceful. The electronic media can play an important role in voicing public opinion to generate support for the government policies. The media can also peruse the politicians to a national political agenda, for institutional stability.
Role of Electronic Media in Resolution of Sectarian Crisis.  The track record of electronic media on ethnic and sectarian clashes between Mohajir – Pathan, Mohajir – Sindhi and Shia – Sunni is extremely encouraging.  The media has always followed the neutral line and supported the efforts of government in fighting these internal security issues. The electronic media in this area can play a decisive role as a continuous effort to keep the situation defused by creating harmony between various sects.
Role of Electronic Media against Social Evils. The electronic media can play a very vital role in educating the masses about ill effects of social evils like ignorance and backwardness including gun culture and drugs in the society. The awareness can make the society robust and well informed to fulfil their obligations.
The forgoing analysis provides answers to two basic questions; the first question is whether the electronic media has the role of enhancing national integration and cohesion? Secondly, is Pakistani electronic media capable of playing this role? It can be concluded that the electronic media to some extent has a role in enhancing national integration and cohesion. The electronic media because of its very fast growth in Pakistan significantly influenced the public opinion on national issues. However for an effective role of electronic media towards these national objectives, media has its inherent strengths and limitations.
The electronic media in Pakistan has recorded tremendous growth in a limited time period. In terms of audience both television and radio has significant reach. It can be termed as fourth pillar of the state. The electronic media has impact (both positive and negative) on generating public opinion on national issues. There are serious socio-political and socio- economic distortions that have caused fault lines in national cohesion. The media, besides the society, has a direct linkage with the politics as well. The electronic media is an agent of change but the direction of change depends upon the reported information. The media has constraints and limitations, like vested interests, corruption, political motives and monetary gains. Because of lack of objectivity in its activities the creditability of media is sometime questioned. The media reporting is also scandalous and unrealistic to define an issue, this aspect of media needs improvement. The main thesis of this argument is that electronic media is not the master of events because of its structural constraints; therefore, the myth of powerful electronic media is not true. The electronic media is striving hard to become an effective pillar of statecraft. The electronic media is to provide, not to create and media is playing this role to a great extent.
The increasing role of the electronic media in Pakistan warrants formulation of a negotiated and practicable media policy by all the stake holders to assign electronic media its role to enhance national cohesion and integration. It may be also concluded that the government and media should focus should make a commitment to improve the utilization of electronic media for national interests in the coming years. It shall be an appropriate step to maintain a data bank of eminent scholars, educationists, leaders and specialists in their respective fields to discuss subjects on the electronic media useful for national cohesion and integration. The education and training of media people may be arranged at appropriate level to equip them with knowledge and skills to improve quality of reporting.  The electronic media may identify societal conditions that resist change and cause disintegration, to bridge the gap in national development. The information sharing in the development of human resources, economic growth, modernization of the society; and shaping of a policy to redirect national affairs is possible with a cooperative approach between the government and electronic media.
Pakistani media is a business like other businesses, a billion dollar industry and thus its primary motive remains to earn money. The media often looks for controversy, sensational and negative news to make it breaking news. The Media feels it has the right to interpret what is good or bad for society using its own standards.  It, however, has its own agenda of exploitation and money making, and it has also   power of projection of its cause directly to the public. It can be concluded that national cohesion is the shared responsibility of all the people, government, national institutions, political and religious leaders, and the electronic media. Without achieving economic sustainability and a promise of a better future, our national cohesion will remain under stress.
We can conclude however that media is often blamed for social ills to the determinant of identifying the real causes of the problems. We have to see the impact of the dynamics of the society, the governmental culture of power and governance, and various policies and actions, instead of putting blame on media. It is easier to pass a law to prevent conduct of violence. But the real causes of violence in society- such as poverty, instable family system, role of agencies, mental state of the members of the society, are difficult to solve.We have to examine what causes of a certain phenomena, there may be some more research to study about casualty. What causes something to happen? Is it possible that watching a particular television programme could cause a person to behave in a certain way?  The relationship between electronic media exposure and behaviour is very complex and many other factors do intervene. It is not possible to prove that the media has direct “effects”, to cause disintegration in the society however it has impact on public opinion formation. The impression that the media could solely and independently play a role in making society   and the people to behave in a certain way, cannot succeed, there appears no empirical evidence to support this explanation.

Formulation of electronic media policy A comprehensive electronic media policy may be formulated for an effective role of the electronic media in national cohesion. This policy may cover issues like awareness creation, resolution of conflicts and the socio-economic uplift of the society. The scope of the regulatory body (PEMRA) may be enlarged to give representation to all the stake holders including civil society and the journalists. The PEMRA should ensure formulation of a negotiated code of conduct. The focus of the strategy should be a free electronic media guided by a code of conduct to fulfil its national duty.
The electronic media role to strengthen Institutions The electronic media must help sustain confidence in our national institutions such as parliament, armed forces, judiciary and our social structure. The media may project optimism to develop a positive opinion and attitude in the people.
Media to safeguard national interests. The Media should differentiate between state and the government in its criticism. The criticism of government is in order; it must not be resorted against the state. The media is expected to prefer the national interests supreme over their own interests on such sensitive and complex issues
Media and good governance The media should expose corruption, to exert pressure on the government for fair and transparent accountability. The media should also indicate areas to bring transparency in government actions. The media through awareness campaign should help in building public consensus to condemn corruption to promote a culture of good governance.
The media to avoid sensations and scandalous coverage   The electronic media should help to develop a harmonious society, bridge gap between reality and the distortions. The media should project objective analysis of the events. The media should present the events by avoiding biases, prejudices and negative perceptions of various groups operating in the society.
Education and training of media people There is lack of proper education, training and understanding among media persons about National Security and defence issues.  In certain cases this leads to improper reporting. The media people must be properly educated, professionally trained and intellectually motivated to contribute towards national cause.
Feedback and Evaluation of Electronic Media    The mechanism to evaluate the performance of the electronic media towards the desired objectives of national cohesion and integration may be evolved. The incentives to media (cash and medals) on account objective analysis of national issues and allocation of reasonable time for coverage of national harmony issues may be considered.
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11 Responses to "ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN PAKISTAN – By Azam Khan"

i m giving u a great regard coz ur research gave me a alot of help for making assignments…
But please mention media and political structure of pakistan……………..Thanx

thanx your data is very helpful for my

very good and positive


A very good piece of work. The research like this improve the knowledge of students and makes opinions

I am particulary impressed by the idea given by the learned author about the need of proper education and training of the media people.This is urgent need of time that such training is imparted to them with particular reference to national security issues. Those in the government who deal with the media people should study this research paper very thoroughly and take appropriate measures to organize these training programmes.Media people can be associated in course designing and deveopment of training materials, Congatulations to Azam for a good effort.

A highly informative and useful study. This paper should be included in the study parameters for journalists, anchor persons and all public/ private people and organizations affiliated with the print and electronic media. It is also important to emphasize on the ethical practices in.journalism and media. Great contribution indeed by Mr. Azam Khan.

no reseach with facts & figures abt the impact of electronic media on children & young people with different age groups.plz take it up also.

AOA Sir, “Qalandar” here… informative piece of work. Please send your contact & e-mail at … Thanks

Some important links missing. need to be addressed.. Ahmad sheikh International Broadcaster/ Journalist and Educationist. Former Head of National Broadcasting Services Radio Pakistan Lahore

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