TREASURE CHEST

DO’s AND DONT’s AS PER QURAN — BY AMIR AGHA

Posted on: February 14, 2014

Do’s !  and  Don’ts !

as per 

Quran

for

mankind, children of Adam

Believers or Not

 

Enjoin good and forbid evil !

[Aal-e-Imran, 3:110]

Foreword

F.1       Quran was revealed about 1,400 years ago gradually over a period of 23 years from 609 to 632 AD to the holy prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him (PBUH).  It needs to be studied as a scripture (religious text) alone, and neither as a code of law, manual of instructions, nor a scientific research paper.  Quran describes itself as :

  • Huda –                         book of guidance
  • Furqan –                      discernment between truth and falsehood
  • Ummul kitab –             mother book {other books include Torah, Injeel (Bible)}
  • Hikmat –                      wisdom
  • Zikr       –                      remembrance; and
  • Tanzeel –                      sent down / descended from heavens to earth.

F.2       It narrates, sometimes in detail and others in brief, certain events about past prophets and people, and also mentions how people of the past were indulging in certain vices and evils, and how they were dealt with, often emphasizing the moral significance of the events over their narrative sequence.  There are wisdom, far sight and lessons in those narrations.

F.3       It then gives certain guiding principles with the main objective of eradicating from society the prevailant evils and of encouraging virtuous acts and deeds both at individuals’ and society’s levels.  Addressees in Quran include direct or indirectly :

  • mankind in general (Ya ayyuhan- naas)    
  • children of Adam (Ya bani Aadam)
  • non-belivers (Ya ayyuhal-kaferoon)
  • children of Israil (Ya bani Israil)
  • followers of holy books like Torah and Injeel (Ya ahlil kitaab)
  • believers (Ya ayyuhalla-zeena aa’manoo)
  • the prophet Muhammad [Qul ! (say !)]

F.4.      This collection of certain extracts from Quran [and their literal and idiomatic meaning, spirit, essense or intent etc. in simple English], is mainly for those readers who :

  • claim that humanity alone itself  is their religion, and / or
  • do not believe in existence of any deity or divine being, and / or
  • believe it is impossible to know anything about God or universe, and / or
  • are non-believer in any religion, and / or
  • are doubtful and critic of all accepted doctrines and creeds, and / or
  • are non-believer in any prophet.

F.5.      Muslim readers, who are well conversant with the Quran, are requested to favour the author through their views / recommendations / suggestions about how this compilation can further be improved for benefit of all readers.

F.6.      The term ‘prophet’ in this compilation includes all those persons who were sent by Allah the Divine with directions to bring reforms in the society through conveying the heavenly messages and, more important, through their deeds and actions.  Muslims believe that all prophets mentioned in the Quran (as listed below) were indeed prophets.  There would be many other prophets but since they are not mentioned in Quran, their prophethood is neither affirmed nor denied by muslis.  Exact number of such prophets or the particular nations / people unto whom they were sent are not mentioned in the Quran. 

Names of Prophets               (peace be upon them)

Times mentioned

Names of Prophets               (peace be upon them)

Times mentioned

1. Muhammad

4

14. Shuayb

11

2. Īsa ibn Maryam

29

15. Yūsuf

27

3. Yahya

5

16. Yaqūb

16

4. Zakariyya

7

17. Ishaq

17

5. Al-Yasa

2

18. Ismaīl

12

6. Ilyas

2

19. Ibrahīm

69

7.Yūnus

4

20. Lūt

27

8. Dhu’l Kifl

2

21. Salih

9

9. Ayyūb.

4

22. Hūd

7

10.Sulayman

17

23. Nūh

43

11. Dawūd

16

24. Idrīs

2

12. Mūsa

136

25. Adam

25

13. Harūn

20

   

F.7.   Readers have also to keep in mind the era and environment in which prophet Muhammad was born and brought up. Having lived in that society for 40 long years, he was then assigned the responsibility of bringing reforms through eradicating the prevalent evils and by enouraging virtuous deeds through demonstrating how to act himself upon  those teachings.  These very directions, first preached and then acted upon, ultimately were compiled as the Quran book. 

F.8       Evils and wrongs prevailing for centuries in Arabia were indeed numerous, major ones being (i) to (iii) below :

(i) Absence of women rights.  Women mostly did not have their own identity and accepted rights.  Even their dowry was taken by fathers as bride price.  Marriage was viewed as a status instead of as a contract, and women’s consent for marriage was of no importance.  Marriage did not require any witnesses.  Slave women were used for prostitution, proceeds whereof went to the master.  They were otherwise, too, treated with cruelty; and neither fed nor clothed in a humanely manner.   Men ensured that their wealth would be inherited by their own actual sons, and not simply by an extended family of their sisters’ sons.  Upon a man’s death, everything went to the sons, and none to the widow. Quranic orders bestwoed upon women certain rights not previously recognized.

(ii) Female infanticide was a common practice, either out of embarassment that the girl would grow up to be a woman and then be given to some man in marriage, or out of fear that the family would not be able to afford the related life needs.  The practice was centuries old and universal.   Gender of the expected baby could not be known in those days till the baby was born, hence female infacticide was committed immediately after birth of a girl baby.  This vice has existed in recent times too, according to UN reports, in China and India.   Quranic directions prohibit killing of all innocent human souls, including those of a babies.

(iii) Maltreatment of slaves. Those captured during wars but not executed, were made to beg for their subsistence because the masters did not cosider it their responsibility to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.  Quranic directions demanded good humane treatment of slaves, and simultaneously encouraged freeing of slaves as acts of charity, repentence and expiation.

(iv) Other evils  included exploitation of the poor, usury, murder, false contracts, fornication, adultery, gambling, drunkenness, breach / usurping of trust, robbing and theft.  Quranic directions include those to discourage and eradicate such evils.

F.9       It was indeed an uphill task for a prophet PBUH to bring reforms in such a society.  Prophet Muhammad PBUH however met success ultimately in bringing about revolutionary reforms through phased implementation of Quranic directions.

F.10     This compilation of extracts from Quran has been arranged in alphabetic order to facilitate the reader to search the relevant direction subject-wise, and then also refer to the specific Ayat (verse) of the particular Sura (chapter) of Quran.  To keep this compilation brief, relevant suras of Quran have neither been copied in Arabic nor their full literal translation has been included.  Readers desirous of knowing the original text or the literal / idiomatic translations are encouraged to either read  hard copy of Quran with translation in the particular language, or to see its images and available translation on internet.

F.11     Quran was revealed upon the holy prophet Muhammad PBUH through the archangel Jibraeel (Gabriel).  Many of the directions for muslims as per Quran were practically demonstrated by the holy prophet PBUH himself.  While certain directions in Quran are more of the nature of guidelines, detailed directions were given by the prophet.  There are millions of ahadees / ahadith referring to the sayings of the holy prophet as collected and renarrated by various muhaddaseen.  Quranic directions would therefore not be fully appreciable unless relevant sayings of the holy prophet PBUH are also mentioned along. 

F.12     Last Khutba (address) by the holy prophet PBUH was given at the occasion of  10 AH / 632 AD hajj ( the first and the last one after his accomplishing the task of cleansing ka’ba of 360 or so idols).  It is a unique piece of sermon, preserved over the last 1400 years.   For mulims, every word of the holy prophet has great value.  The prophet PBUH demonstrated certain obligatory acts (not explained in detail in Quran) through practical illustration of their fine details.  Offering of 5-timely prayers is but one example.  Certain extracts from that Khutba are quoted, where appropriate, along with relevant ayaat from Quran.  Some extracts from English translation of the address are annexed at the end of this paper.

F.13     This khutba was delivered by the holy prophet PBUH to muslims (numbeing over a hundred thousand) from the mount Jabl e rehma in Mina, a place at a few kilometers’ distance from Makkah.  However, muslims believe it is for the entire mankind.  Never once the prophet PBUH addressed the audience as O Muslims, or O Believers.  The addressees are O Mankind, O People !  Universality of this khutba is thus acclaimed by muslims as the directions are for the entire humanity, and not restricted to muslims alone.

F.14     Certain words and terms are unique in Arabic, the  ideal / exact synonyms whereof are not available in other languages.  An Arabic word or term may have a very wide range of meanings depending on the context, making an accurate translation even more difficult.   Other Arabic words and terms can well be translated in English.  However, translation of Quran has always been a problematic and difficult issue.  Many argue that the Quranic text cannot be reproduced in another language or form.  Detailed explanations of certain Arabic terms have therefore been given and the spirit of relevant directions elaborated while quoting the specific Quranic directions.

F.15     The term ‘in those times’ refers to the years around 609 AD when the revelation of Qur’an commenced upon Muhammad the holy prophet PBUH.  The evil practices prevalent in those times continued for a few years till the holy prophet condemned those and muslims were directed gradually to abolish those.

 

Agha AmirAhmad

Mississauga, Canada

13 Feb 2014

 

   

I N D E X

Arabic  

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

#

Direction on

Page

 

#

Direction on

Page

1

Adl Justice

8

 

30

Mubaarzat Wars

22

2

Afw Forgiveness

8

 

31

Mutaffif Fraud

23

3

Ahd Agreement

8

 

32

Tanajaw Whisper

23

4

Akhuwwat Brotherhood

9

 

33

Nifaaq Spend

23

5

Amanat Trust

9

 

34

Nisa’ Women

24

6

Amn Peace

10

 

35

Qarz Debt

24

7

Amwaal Properties

11

 

36

Qitaal Murder

24

8

Armla Widow

11

 

37

Qulu Speak

25

9

Auraat Privacy

12

 

38

Riba Usury

25

10

Aziyyat Torture

12

 

39

Sabr Patience

25

11

Azwaaj Wives

12

 

40

Sadaqaat Charities

26

12

Birr Virtue

13

 

41

Sa’il Needy

26

13

Dakhl Entry

14

 

42

Sarqa Stealing

26

14

Fasaad Corruption

14

 

43

Shahadaa Testimony

26

15

Fawaahish Immoralities

15

 

44

Sidq Truth

27

16

Gheebat Backbiting

16

 

45

Soat Voice Tone

27

17

Ghulaam Slaves

16

 

46

Sufahaa Half-wits

27

18

Haml Pregnancy

17

 

47

T’aawun Cooperate

28

19

Haraam Forbidden

17

 

48

Tahiyyat Greetings

28

20

Ikhraj Eviction

18

 

49

Talaq Divorce

28

21

Istehzaa’ Ridicule

19

 

50

Ujoor Compensation

29

22

Khamr Influence

19

 

51

Uqood Contracts

29

23

Kulu Eat

19

 

52

Walidain Parents

30

24

Maghfira Pardon

20

 

53

Yataama Orphans

30

25

Mais’r Gambling

20

 

54

Zakat Zakat

31

26

Marahaa Haughtiness

20

 

55

Zina Fornication

31

27

Msakeen Needy

20

 

56

Zulm Excess

31

28

Meeraas Inheritance

21

 

57

Extracts from last sermon

32

29

Mtaa’ Maintenance

22

       

 

 

 

 

   

I N D E X

English  

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

#

Direction on

Page

 

#

Direction on

Page

1

Agreement Ahd

8

 

30

Needy Sa’il

26

2

Backbiting Gheebat

16

 

31

Orphans Yataama

30

3

Brotherhood Akhuwwat

9

 

32

Pardon Maghfira

20

4

Charities Sadaqaat

26

 

33

Parents Walidain

30

5

Compensation Ujoor

29

 

34

Patience Sabr

25

6

Contracts Uqood

29

 

35

Peace Amn

10

7

Cooperate T’aawun

28

 

36

Pregnancy Haml

17

8

Corruption Fasaad

14

 

37

Privacy Auraat

12

9

Debt Qarz

24

 

38

Properties Amwaal

11

10

Divorce Talaq

28

 

39

Ridicule Istehzaa’

19

11

Eat Kulu

19

 

40

Slaves Ghulaam

16

12

Entry Dakhl

14

 

41

Speak Qulu

25

13

Eviction Ikhraj

18

 

42

Spend Nifaaq

23

14

Excess Zulm

31

 

43

Stealing Sarqa

26

15

Forbidden Haraam

17

 

44

Testimony Shahadaa

26

16

Forgiveness Afw

8

 

45

Torture Aziyyat

12

17

Fornication Zina

31

 

46

Trust Amanat

9

18

Fraud Mutaffif

23

 

47

Truth Sidq

27

19

Gambling Mais’r

20

 

48

Usury Riba

25

20

Greetings Tahiyyat

28

 

49

Virtue Birr

13

21

Half-wits Sufahaa

27

 

50

Voice Tone Soat

27

22

Haughtiness Marahaa

20

 

51

Wars Mubaarzat

22

23

Immoralities Fawaahish

15

 

52

Whisper Tanajaw

23

24

Influence Khamr

19

 

53

Widow Armla

11

25

Inheritance Meeraas

21

 

54

Wives Azwaaj

12

26

Justice Adl

8

 

55

Women Nisa’

24

27

Maintenance Mtaa’

22

 

56

Zakat Zakat

31

28

Murder Qitaal

24

 

57

Extracts from last sermon

32

29

Needy Msakeen

20

       

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.         Adl  (Justice)

1.1       Justice is the closest synonym in English for Arabic Adl.  Quranic directions imply that justice is blind and has to be administered fairly, without fear, favour or nepotism considerations. One who is entrusted with the relevant responsibility, has to administer justice between all concerned parties, be they partners disputing over a business contract / inheritance, wives of the same husband, parents in need of care and attention, slaves or msakeen.  Person entrusted with doing Adl has to discharge the obligation as an Amanat, as explained in para 4.   

1.2       Some Quranic verses are quoted below [headings apply to all further quotes too].

Sura  Verse                                                      Directions

4 58 and when you judge between people, judge with justice
4 135 Be persistently standing firm in justice, even if  against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether  rich or poor.  So follow not  inclination, lest you commit injustice.
5 8 let not hatred of people prevent you from being just. Be just; it is nearer to righteousness
6 152 And when you testify, be just, even if [it concerns] a near relative

2.         Afw (Forgiveness)

2.1       To err is human.  Occasions may arise when someone offends others through inadvertent, or even deliberate errors of omission and commission.  If and when the offending and erring person regrets, expresses repentance and  asks for forgiveness, large heartedness needs to be exercised and the offending party forgiven.  Afw is the Arabic word for forgiveness or pardon.

7 199 Show forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the foolish

2.2       Blood revenge was practised in the days of Ignorance.  Enmity continued from generation to generation.  This evil practice was not only wiped out by the holy prophet PBUH, but he also abolished, as the first step, the blood revenge of his own kith, a child.

Extract from the last sermon. 

Behold! All practice of the days of ignorance are now under my feet. The blood revenges of the days of ignorance are remitted. The first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibn Rabiah whom the Hudhayls killed.

3.         Ahd (Agreement)

3.1       Promise, like a contract, has to be honoured as per Quranic direction.

17 34 And fulfill [every] commitment. Indeed, the commitment is ever [that about which one will be] questioned.

4.         Akhuwwat (Brotherhood)

4.1       A  muslim is bound to treat all other muslims just like his brothers (and sisters) in religion.  One can never imagine a brother treating his brother / sister ill or with mala fide intent.  An elder brother would sacrifice his food, comfort, security and all resources in order to ensure that no harm reaches his younger brother / sister.  And the younger ones are required to reciprocate with utmost respect and honour to their elders.

33

5

Call them (the slaves) after their fathers. That is most just. If you know not their fathers, then call them your brothers in faith and your patrons. There is no blame on you if you make a mistake but you are accountable for what is done intentionally.
49 10 The Muslims are brothers to each other, therefore make peace between your two brothers.

4.2       Extract from the last sermon :

O’ People! Every Muslim is the brother of every other Muslim, and all the Muslims form one brotherhood.  Nothing of his brother is lawful for a Muslim except what he himself gives willingly. So do not wrong yourselves.

O’ Ye people! Allah says, O’ people I created you from one male and one female and made you into tribes and nations, so as to be known to one another. Verily in the sight of Allah, the most honoured amongst you is the one who is most God-fearing. There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab and for a non-Arab over an Arab, nor for the white over the black nor for the black over the white except in taqwa.

 

O’ people! Listen and obey, though a mangled Abyssinian (dark complexion) slave is appointed your Amir, provided he executes (the Ordinance of) the Book among you.

5.         Amaanat (Trust)

5.1       English word ‘Trust’ has often been used to translate Amaanat.  However, Amaanat has much wider meanings and use in Arabic than the word Trust in English.

5.2       It was a general custom for people of those times to keep their money, jewellery and other valuables in trust with certain reliable persons who were reputed as Ameen (honest trustee) with the understanding that the items under trust would be handed back upon request.  Ameen was thus a person under commitment to return the amaanat upon demand.   However, some people used to usurp the tursted items with the claim that they were not bound to keep their (unwritten) words with the (forgetful) illiterate people.

5.3       Apart from above meanings as trust, other matters covered by amaanat include :-

  • Holding written or oral confidential communications in trust, and not disclosing it to any unauthorized or irrelevant person
  • Passing on any message or item from one to some other designated person
  • Spending money on someone’s behalf for the given purpose alone and not deriving any unconsented personal gain during the transaction.  
  • Suggesting best possible steps to those seeking advice  
  • Giving true evidence when the occasion arises
  • Acting as an honest and conscientious arbitrator 
  • Rendering as employee best possible service to employer against wages
  • Appointing only deserving person against a position when empowered to do so
  • Supplying commodities of correct weight and measurements upon sale of goods
  • Returning borrowed items immediately after use when no longer needed
  • Abiding by the local laws and bye-laws
  • paying all taxes and other dues in full and in time
  • Making true declarations as and when required under an agreement or law.

5.4       Propet Muhammad PBUH not only preached the Quranic directions on amaanat but he  demonstrated his own trustworthiness to the extent that even his extremist adversaries had to admit he was a Sadiq and an Ameen (ever speaker of truth, and trust worthy to the highest extent) beyond any doubt.

 

2 283 And if one of you entrusts another, then the trustee (is) to discharge his trust [faithfully]
4 29 do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly but (deal) only [in lawful] business by mutual consent
4 58 render back your amanaat ( items held in trust) to those to whom they are due
8 27 do not …. betray your amanaat (trusts) while you know [the consequence].

 

5.5       Extract from the last sermon

 

All debts must be repaid, all borrowed property must be returned, gifts should be reciprocated and a surety must make good the loss to the assured.

 

Take heed not to go astray after me and strike one another’s necks. He who (amongst you) has any trust with him, he must return it to its owner.

 

6.         Amn (Peace)

6.1       Fighting for righteousness and going to war with those opponents who are bent upon wrong-doing, mischief, fasaad and war-waging, is the only proper way of life to ensure peace.  Neither fighting, nor evicting people of different religion from their homes is allowed in the name of religion. 

60 8 Be righteous and act justly with those who do not fight you for religion and do not expel you from your homes.
60 9 Do not ally with those who fight you for religion and expel you from your homes and aid in your expulsion.

7.         Amwaal (Properties)

7.1       Property belonging to others and held in trust is a sort of mal (wealth); and has to be dealt with as amaanat

2 188 And do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly or send it [in bribery] to the rulers
4 6 Check orphans’ abilities upon their reaching marriageable age, and hand over their properties if you find them of sound judgement.  Self sufficient guardians should refrain from consuming anything though the poor ones may take acceptable extent, but not consume excessively for fear of  having to return it upon the orphans’ growing up.  Take witnesses when returning them the property.

 

7.2       Extract from the last sermon : 

All debts must be repaid, all borrowed property must be returned, gifts should be reciprocated and a surety must make good the loss to the assured.

8.         Armla (Widows)

8.1       Minimum period for which widow is entitled to maintenance out of the deceased husband’s wealth, is one year, in addition to 1/4th share in the estate, if the deceased is childless, or 1/8th in case of any children. In a society where men shoulder the responsibility of all family expenses, widows are encouraged to re-marry after the iddat period as the husband thereafter takes over all responsibilities.  Widows not inclined to re-marry due to old age and / or expecting a better life as dependent upon children, may continue to live so.  Some Quranic directions are given below.

2

234

Waiting period for re-marriage for widows is 4 and a half months.  Do not marry them till the period expires.
  2 240 Bequest for widows, maintenance for one year. But if they leave earlier [of their own accord], there is no blame upon you for what they do with themselves in an acceptable way

4

12

In that which you leave, their (your wives’) share is a fourth if you leave no child; but if you leave a child, they get an eighth of that which you leave after payment of legacies that you may have bequeathed or debts.

9.         Auraat (privacy)

9.1       Times when one may rest undressed in private are the auraat times. The practice of servants and youth entering the bedrooms un-announced was discontinued after Quranic direction on the subject. 

24 58 Let your servants / slaves and ones near puberty seek your permission for entering your room at three privacy times: before dawn prayer, after night prayer and during your noon siesta.

 

 

10.       Aziyyat (Injury / Torture)

10.1     While charity is a virtuous and commendable act, one has to ensure that neither the self respect of person receiving charity is violated in any way, nor any aziyyat (injury or torture through insulting remarks) is inflicted; else it is better not to give the charity at all.

2 263 Kind words and forgiving are preferable to charity followed by injury

11.       Azwaaj (Wives)

11.1     Wives (Azwaaj) did not have much respect and rights in those days. Quran regularized the marital relations and endowed wives with certain rights.  Basic condition for marriage contract was the assent of wife on the contract terms and conditions including bridal money and other gifts.  Quranic directions are addressed mostly to the husbands because they headed the families and were responsible for the families’ respectable maintenance according to the their status.

11.2     Wives were expected to produce maximum number of children and preferably more males.  That is one reason why wives are termed as tilth for men.  Fine marital matters were left to the couples. 

11.3     Quranic directions clearly specify which women may be taken into marriage, and which ones not as marrying them is haraam.  Other rights and responsibilities of wives / divorcees are also included in Quranic directions.

2

223

Your wives are as a tilth for you; so approach your tilth when or how you will

4

3

And give the women [upon marriage] their [bridal] gifts graciously. But if they give up willingly to you anything of it, then take it in satisfaction and ease.

4

20

But if you want to replace one wife with another and you have given one of them a great amount [in gifts], do not take [back] from it anything. Would you take it in injustice and manifest sin?

4

22

Do not marry women whom your fathers married, it being immoral, hateful and evil

4

23

Prohibited to you for marriage are your mothers / daughters / sisters, sisters of your father / mother, daughters of your brother / sister, your [milk] mothers and their daughters, your wives’ mothers, and your step-daughters from your wives, and wives of your own real sons, and two sisters simultaneously.

4

24

Also prohibited are all married women except those becoming your property through war.  Marrying is lawful when you wed with [gifts from] your property, all other women who desire chastity and not illicit sexual intercourse. So give them their due obligatory compensation or what you mutually agree to beyond that obligation.

4

34

Advise the wives from whom you fear arrogance but if they persist forsake them in bed; and [finally], strike them. But if they obey seek no means against them.

4

35

And if you fear dissension between a couple, appoint an arbitrator each from his and her people for their possible reconciliation.

4

128

And if a wife fears husband’s contempt or evasion, they may reach terms of settlement – and settlement is best though present in [human] souls is stinginess.

4

129

You will never have equal feelings for wives despite your best efforts. But do not incline completely towards one leaving another suspended.

58

3

If after pronouncing the wife likening her to mother, put a slave to liberty before you refer to wife. That is admonishment to you.

58

4

If there is no slave to set free, fast for two consecutive months, and if unable to, feed sixty poor persons before reverting to wife.

65

6

Lodge the divorced wives as per your means and do not harm / oppress them. Maintain the pregnant ones till delivery. Compensate them if they breastfeed the baby and settle your disputes lawfully; but if you are in discord, then alternate breast feeding be arranged.

 

11.4     Extract from the last sermon :

 

Treat kindly the wives who are your helpers but unable to manage their affairs themselves. O’ people! Verily you have rights over your women and they have certain rights over you. They are obliged to honor their conjugal rights, and not to commit acts of impropriety.  If they misbehave, you may separate them and chastise them, but not severely, and if they refrain, then maintain them properly.

 

Behold! a woman is not permitted to give out anything from husband’s wealth without his consent. Practise taqwa concerning women, for verily you have taken them on the security of Allah and have made their persons lawful unto you by words of Allah.

 

12.       Birr (Virtue)

12.1     For those who can spare some of their wealth, Quran directs spending on various virtuous causes, which is tantamount to birr.

2 177 Virtuous (Birr) it is … to give out of wealth to kinsfolk, orphans, poor, wayfarers, those who ask for (alms) and to set slaves free.

 

13.       Dakhl (Entry)

13.1     Visits would be a source of pleasure both for the visiting and the visited if certain etiquettes are observed.  Some of the Quranic directions about entering (dakhl) others’ houses are :-

24

27

Do not enter houses other than your own houses until you ascertain welcome and greet their inhabitants.

24

28

Do not enter others’ houses until permission has been given you. And if you are hinted to go back, do go back.

24

29

There is no blame upon you for entering houses not inhabited in which there is convenience for you

14.       Fasaad (Corruption)

14.1     The word generally used as synonym of fasaad in English is ‘corruption’.  However, ‘corruption’ does not convey the spirit and full meaning of  fasaad

14.2     Antonym of fasaad in Arabic is sulah (reconciliation after war or dissent, repairing of items of use, and rejoining particularly of hearts and relationships). Going by that concept, fasaad would mean causing separation and rift between persons, creating hatred and breaking things and hearts apart through mischief-mongering.

14.3     Fasaad  is such a great evil that its ill effects and consequences do not remain limited to the evil doer alone, or the closely related persons only.  It may involve huge losses of life and property and prolonged wars. Its punishment as per Quran is therefore of the highest and severest degree.

5 33 Indeed, the penalty for those who …….. and strive upon earth [to cause] corruption is none but that they be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off from opposite sides or that they be exiled from the land.
7 56 And cause not corruption upon the earth after its reformation.
26 183 And do not deprive people of their due and do not commit abuse on earth, spreading corruption.
28 77 And desire not corruption in the land.

 

14.4     Extract from the last sermon :

 

And beware of transgressing the limits set in the matters of religion, for it is transgression of (the proper bounds of) religion that brought destruction to many people before you.

15        Fawaahish (Immoralities)

15.1     Most of the acts which are considered immoral in today’s advanced societies were declared as immoral (Fawaahish) through Quran about 1,500 years ago.  Breach of trust, backbiting, non-fulfillment of contract, unfair dealings, excesses and transgression all are covered by the term fawaahish, but illicit relations top the list. 

15.2     Briefly speaking, illicit relations are those sexual relations which are against laws of the land.  The equivalent word in Arabic for illicit relations between a man and a woman is Zina.  The first ever murder of his own brother was committed by a man desiring his own twin sister as wife whereas law then prohibited it. In today’s world, too, there is no dearth of instances where men desiring matrimony with particular girls indulge into murdering the competitors (and even the girls) and then committing suicide. 

15.3     From the time society accepted man and wife and their offspring the basic small family unit, everyone is expected to respect the sacredness of that unit, and not to disturb it.  Illicit relations in violation of the family sanctity have since then caused innumerable murders and family break-ups; in addition to denying the children their parents’ love and attention.  

15.4     There are a few societies today which, in the name of personal liberty and freedom, accept free sex between consenting single adults without marital relationship.  The concept of same sex marriage is also gaining popularity in those societies.  Even muslims absorbed in those societies are sympathetic towards those attitudes.  However fact remains that in majority of world’s countries and societies, illicit relations are still causing murders by the fathers, brothers and even the wives, with resultant break up of families and causing misery to children.

15.5     While master-slave girl relationship in those days included sexual relations too, it was illegal for others to have this relationship or to indulge in prostitution with those girls.  Persons who could not afford to marry free women against compensation of lodgings and maintenance, were allowed to marry slave girls with their masters’ permission.  Quran prescribes punishment of 100 lashes before witnesses for the illicit relationship, which in the case of slave-girls is half of that for free woman.

4

15

If you bring four [witnesses] from among you against women indulging in unlawful intercourse ….. confine the guilty women to houses until death or there is ordained [another] way.

4

16

Punish both parties but if they repent and do righteous deeds, let them alone.

4

25

And whoever cannot [find] means to marry free, believing women, then [marry] from those …..believing slave girls. …. with the permission of their people and give them their due compensation according to what is acceptable. ….. If they should commit adultery, for them is half the punishment for free women
6 151 And do not approach obvious or concealed immoralities. 

24

2

Punish each (zina partners) with 100 lashes, and do not be taken by pity for them  ….and let a group of the believers witness the punishment.

24

33

And do not compel your slave girls to prostitution, if they desire chastity

16.       Gheebat (Backbiting)

16.1     Gheebat in Arabic implies uttering those bad or slanderous words about a third person which one would hesitate to use and not consider appropriate uttering if that third was present, or on hearing or learning of which the third person would take offence.

16.2     It is quite ethical to use only those words about a third person which could be uttered in the presence of that third person without offending him.  Speaker or writer of slanderous words is expected to have moral courage to the extent that if need be he would utter the same words in the presence of that third person too.

16.3     Some persons were of the view that there is no harm if words about proven vices of a third person were uttered in his absence.  The holy prophet clarified that even those words were tantamount to gheebat.  He explained that if those words were not facts then it would be a still more serious evil to unduly accuse the third person of a fault which was known not to exist.

16.4     Quran forbids with such intensity from indulging into gheebat that it describes gheebat to be as detestible as eating flesh of a dead brother.

49 12 Avoid much [ undue, negative] assumption it indeed being a sin. And do not spy or backbite each other. Would you like to eat the flesh of your dead brother ? You would detest it !

17.       Ghulaam (Slaves)

17.1     Slavery was being practised for centuries in and around Arabia.  It could not be wiped out overnight.  However, various Quranic directions, given on other issues, include setting a slave (ghulaam) free as a substitute of fasting for certain number of days, or clothing or feeding certain msakeen.  Otherwise too, masters were given the responsibility of proper lodging, boarding, clothing and feeding of the slaves.  And most important, if the slaves were muslim, they are to be treated as brethren by the masters.

4

25

If you cannot afford to marry free believing women, and fear sinning, you may marry believing slave girls with permission of their masters. Give due acceptable compensation to them for being chaste and neither committing unlawful intercourse randomly, nor taking secret lovers. If they commit adultery, there is half punishment of that for free women.

4

36

and to parents do good, and to relatives, orphans, the needy, the near neighbor, the neighbor farther away, the companion at your side, the traveler, and those whom your right hands possess

4

92

He who hath killed a believer by mistake must set free a believing slave,

5

89

The expiation (for breaking such oaths) is either to feed ten needy persons…….., or to clothe them, or to set one man free from bondage.

24

32

And marry the unmarried among you and the righteous among your male slaves and female slaves.

24

33

And do not compel your slave girls to prostitution, if they desire chastity, to seek [thereby] the temporary interests of worldly life.

33

5

Call them (the slaves) after their fathers. That is most just. If you know not their fathers, then call them your brothers in faith and your patrons. There is no blame on you if you make a mistake but you are accountable for what is done intentionally.

58

3

Those who pronounce zihar (calling wife as mother) with regard to their wives, then wish to go back on what they had said, shall have to free a slave before the two touch each other

90

12~13

And …..what is breaking through the difficult pass.  It is the freeing of a slave.

17.2     Extract from the last sermon :

And your slaves; see that you feed them with such food as you eat yourselves, and clothe them with the clothes that you yourselves wear.

18.       Haml (Pregnancy)

18.1     Children are the responsibility of the father; whereas women are morally and legally bound to ensure that pregnancy from one husband is not unlawfully concealed or made the responsibility of another man.

18.2     Divorcee woman is required to wait for expiry of iddat period before she may take another husband.  The iddat period of 4 months and 10 days is considered more than adequate to determine if the divorcee was pregnant at divorce time.  And if the divorcee is pregnant, then the iddat period ends only upon birth of the child.

18.3     Husbands are responsible for maintenance of divorcee wife till the child is born; and even thereafter if the wife undertakes to nurse the child till weaning. 

2

228

It is unlawful for women to conceal pregnancy when they are divorced

2

233

Mothers to breastfeed children two complete years for whoever wishes to complete the nursing [period]. Upon the father is their acceptable (maintenance) provision and their clothing.

19.       Haraam (Sacred , Forbidden)

19.1     Certain relations, places or food items etc. are held by muslims in extreme honour, sacredness or awe.  Marriage with certain females is haraam and therefore forbidden, as per details in para 10.3.  Mosques around Ka’ba in Makkah, the one where holy prophet lies in Madina  and the Aqsa in Jerusalem are also places with the greatest sacredness and are therefore termed as haraam.  Certain type of food has also been declared as haraam, and muslims are forbidden from taking such food and drink.

19.2     There are no restrictions on eating and drinking all fruit, vegetable and sea food items generally considered as healthy and nutritious, provided these are acquired lawfully.  However certain restrictions and prohibitions apply to eating the meat of animals.  Blood in any form is not allowed (haraam) to be partaken, and animals therefore need to be slaughtered as far as possible in a way that all blood drains out.  Animals not slaughtered alive, and those sacrificed in any other god’s name, are forbidden.   However under compulsion or force, e.g. in extreme hunger for fear of death, forbidden food may also be partaken, but never out of desire or transgression.  Quranic directions about general food items are given below, while those on drinking wine are given separately.

2 168 Eat of what is lawful and good on earth
2 172 Eat from the good things provided for you
2 173 forbidden are…….. dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine ……. but one may eat these  if forced, but without desire  or transgression.
5 1 Lawful for you are the animals of grazing livestock except for that which is recited to you
5 3 Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine…… and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except when you can slaughter it [alive]
5 4 Lawful for you are [all] good foods and [game caught by] your trained hunting animals. So eat of what they catch for you

 

19.3     Extract from the last sermon :

O’ people! Verily your blood, your property and your honor are sacred and inviolable until you appear before your Lord, as the sacred inviolability of this day of yours, this month of yours and this very town (of yours). Verily you will soon meet your Lord and you will be held answerable for your actions.

 

20.       Ikhraj (Eviction)

20.1     It was a common custom to turn certain dissenting people out of their dwellings / towns if majority of people or the influential people wanted those dissenting persons to suffer social and financial boycott punishment. 

20.2     Persons who declared their faith in islam were also maltreated in various ways by the influential non-believers.  Muslims were turned out of their homes, and they had to migrate initially to Habasha, and later to Madina.  Other muslims later continued the migration to Madina.  When the non-believers of Makkah observed growing popularity of islam in Madina, they waged the first ever war with muslims of Madina. 

20.3     After many other wars, muslims were ultimately able to return victorious to Makkah; to practise islam freely and to offer prayers in Ka’ba.  Non-believers were later prevented from entering Ka’ba.  Since people in Makkah depended for their livelihood greatly upon pilgrims to Ka’ba, they feared that preventing non-believers from pilgrimage would have adverse financial effects.  Assurance was then given to them through Sura 9:28 that they would not suffer the feared privation, but would be enriched through bounties.

2 84 (Neither……..)  nor do turn out your own people from your homes:
2 191 (Fight with those who fight with you) and turn them out from where they have turned you out.

21.       Istehzaa (Ridicule)

21.1     Making fun of people and ridiculing the simple natured one (instehzaa) is forbidden as per following Quranic direction.

49 11 Do not ridicule people; they may be better than you.   And do not insult one another and do not call each other by [offensive] nicknames.

22.       Khamr (Influence)

22.1     Acts done and words uttered by people under influence of wine and drugs are often regretted by them when they regain sense.  Drunkenness was again a common evil in those times.  And again it could not be eradicated overnight.  Quran directed people in the first phase not to approach praying if they were intoxicated.  Later, Quran directed people to desist from this evil, explaining that although there was some profit / benefit in wine, yet the evil / sin is far greater than the benefit.

2

219

In wine (and gambling) is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit.

4

43

do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying

23.       Kulu (Eat)

22.1     Except for haraam food, Quranic directions give liberty to have food and drinks in any way provided no extravagance, waste or excesses are indulged into.

7 31 and eat and drink, but be not excessive (extravagant or food wasting).
24 61 There is no constraint when you eat at houses of your own, your father / mother / brothers / sisters / aunts / friends or from houses whose keys you possess.   There is no blame upon you whether you eat together or separately.  But when you enter houses, give greetings of peace upon each other

 

24.       Maghfira (Pardon)

24.1     Among other qualities of the righteous, restraining anger and pardoning the people for their faults is also directed by Quran.

3 134 (Righteous are) who spend  during ease and hardship and who restrain anger and who pardon the people

25.       Mais’r (Gamble)

25.1     Quran stresses upon earning livelihood through fair and legal means.  It prevents from indulging in all other means of acquiring wealth.  Gambling (mais’r) is well known to have adverse effects upon the indulgent whose entire family may suffer the consequences.  No doubt there is some benefit to some persons, but it is forbidden by Quran as a matter of principle in view of the fact that evil effects are much greater compared to the small profit / benefit to the society.

2 219 “In them (wine and gambling) is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit.”

26.       Marahaa (Haughtiness)

26.1     Educated  and cultured people of today do not discriminate on the basis of colour, race, creed, gender etc. Feeling happy and proud over one’s good achievements is one thing and not forbidden.  It is the wrong attitude of haughtiness for possessing wealth,  power and other superior positions over others; and then looking down upon the have-nots as inferiors and holding them in contempt which Quran forbids. 

17 37 And do not walk upon the earth exultantly. Indeed, you will never tear the earth [apart], and you will never reach the mountains in height.
31 18 And do not turn your cheek [in contempt] toward people and do not walk through the earth exultantly.

27.       Masakeen (Needy)

27.1     Persons in position to help needy (masakeen) are directed by Quran to treat those needy with kindness, and to provide for relatives, orphans and needy out of estate.  And if no aid could be given to the needy, Quran directs that they must be dealt with very gently in soft words.

2 83 treat with kindness ….. those in need
4 8 And provide for relatives, orphans and needy out of estate and speak to them kindly.
17 28 And if you [must] turn away the needy (pending availability of means to meet the need) then speak to them gently

28.       Meeraas (Inheritance)

28.1     As mentioned earlier in para 49, women in those times were totally dependent upon men for all their basic needs as well as all comforts and luxuries, and they still continue to be so in many societies.  Men generally shouldered responsibility as heads of family to provide for all basic necessities and other comforts of life for wife and children, as well as for dependent siblings, parents and other relatives. That is one reason why most of the directions in Qur’an are addressed to men.  It is men who as per Sura 4:34 have been granted more strength over women and for what they spend for maintenance from their wealth. Men also have a degree [in responsibility and authority] over women as per Sura 2:228.

28.2     Before muslims started following Quranic directions on inheritance, women did not have any share in the inheritance if there were male heirs.  Women started having their share in the inheritance after the relevant Quranic directions. 

28.3     In recognition of the fact that responsibility for maintaining the family continued to be shouldered by males, their share in inheritance remained higher, and female heir are eligible to half the share of men.  Surviving spouses were however given a specific share before other heirs got theirs.  Inheritance of a childless person was also prescribed. 

2 180 make a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable usage
4 7 For men and women is a share of what the parents and close relatives leave, be it little or much – an obligatory share.
4 11 Share for male is equal to share of two females. A lone daughter gets 1/2; and two or more daughters get 2/3rd of estate. Each parent gets 1/6th of estate if there are children. But if parents [alone] inherit  then 1/3rd is for mother. And if he had siblings, then 1/6th for mother, after any bequest or debt repayment..
4 12 From the estate of a childless man, sole sisters gets 1/2, but two or more share 2/3rd.  Brother of childless woman gets 1/2 too.  Brothers get twice of sisters’ shares if both inherit childless woman’s estate. (after any bequest or debt clearance).
4 176 From the estate of a childless man, sole sisters gets 1/2, but 2 or more share 2/3rd.  Brother of childless woman gets 1/2 too.  Brothers get twice of sisters’ shares if both inherit childless woman’s estate. (after any bequest or debt clearance).
4 19 it is unlawful for you to inherit women by compulsion. And do not coerce them to take back of what you gave them unless they commit a clear immorality. And live with them in kindness even if you do not like them.

 

28.4     Extract from the last sermon :

 

O’ people! Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, has ordained to every one his due share (of inheritance). Hence there is no need (of special) testament for an heir (departing from the rules laid down by the Shari’ah).

29.       Mataa’ (Maintenance)

29.1     It was a common practice for widows of those days to accept marriage with others after the iddat period expired.  If the widows were pregnant the iddat period expired upon birth of the child, otherwise the widows had to wait for expiry of 4 months and 10 days iddat period (or if she was pregnant, for delivery of baby) before remarrying.

29.2     Heirs to the deceased were directed through Quran that the widows were to be given maintenance expenses (mtaa’) for at least one year.  It was expected that the widows would contract marriage with other desirous persons during that period (unless she preferred to live as dependent upon her children).

29.3     This maintenance period is the minimum.  Otherwise, those widows who did not expect marriage offer due to old age, or being unwell, or any other reason, continued to live with their sons and other male relatives who were under obligation to or who volunteered to maintain the widows.

2 240 Widows to be given one year’s maintenance expenses and lodging upon husband’s death

30.       Mubaarzat (Wars)

30.1     Waging wars in the name of religion is not a Quranic direction.  The first ever war (mubaarzat) fought by muslims was waged by the non-believers of Makkah on muslims of Madina.  Muslims are required to follow their religion in peace and harmony, and lead exemplary life as a preaching method;  and let people of other religion practise theirs also freely. 

30.2     However, if fighting is initiated by wrong doers, Quran directs muslims to fight also and return the opponents’ atrocities in the same coin, but never to transgress. 

2

190

Fight (for righteousness) with those who fight you but do not transgress

2

191

And (for righteousness) slay them wherever to overtake them (during wars)

2

194

So assault the one who has assaulted you, in the same way that he assaulted you

47

4

So when you meet those [in battle], who disbelieve strike [their] necks until, when you have inflicted slaughter upon them, then secure their bonds, and either [confer] favor afterwards or ransom [them] until the war lays down its burdens.

31.       Mutaffif (Fraud)

31.1     It was a common practice in those days to dishonestly deliver less than contracted quantity in trade to the customers.  The evil still prevails in under developed countries.  Quran directs in clear words that true weights and correct measurements are to be used in all dealings of goods.  Those(mutaffif)  using incorrect weights and measurements are condemned.

6

152

And give full measure and weight in justice.

17

35

And give full measure when you measure, and weigh with an even balance. That is the best [way] and best in result.

26

181

Give full measure and do not be of those who cause loss.

26

182

And weigh with an even balance.

83

1~3

Woe to those who, when take measure from others, take in full, but when give to other, they cause loss through incorrect measures.

32.       Najwa – (Whispering)

32.1     Conversing in whisper into someone’s ears, while others are present, has all along been considered against social ettiquetes.  Occasions may however arise requiring one to restrict the words for a particular person while others are also present, and privacy is not available.  In such cases, whispering may have to be resorted to.  Quran directs that when you have to whisper (tanajetum) it should be in good cause about righteousness, and not about evil matters and aggressions or disobedience.

58 9 when you converse privately, do not converse about sin and aggression and disobedience but converse about righteousness and piety.

 

33.       Nifaaq (Spending)

33.1     Spending implies parting (nifaaq) with some available item mainly in financial terms.   Wealth stands distributed unevenly amongst mankind.  Those with comparatively more wealth and good at heart  are expected to spend some of their wealth for the poor and needy ones on humanitarian grounds for the society’s welfare. Quran, too, directs that the wealthy should spend for good causes, including helping of the poor, needy, traveler, orphans and in acquiring liberty for the slaves.

2 3 (Righteous are those who) spend from what has been provided ( to them).
2 195 And spend of your substance in the (good) causes …..
2 215 Good spending is for parents, relatives, orphans, needy and traveler.
2 219 (In answer to question) what they should spend, say, “The excess [beyond needs].”
2 264 Render not vain your almsgiving by reproach and injury, like one who spends his wealth for show only
3 134 (Righteous are) who spend  during ease and hardship and who restrain anger and who pardon the people
17 26 And give the relative his right, and [also] the poor and the traveler, and do not spend wastefully.
17 29 And do not make your hand [as] chained to your neck or extend it completely and [thereby] become blamed and insolvent.
25 67 And [righteous are] those who, when they spend, do so not excessively or sparingly but are ever, between that, [justly] moderate
63 10 spend in the way of righteousness from what is provided to you before death approaches

34.       Nisa’ (Women)

34.1     Despite the general illiteracy of women (nisa) of those days and their rather passive role in then society, their certain pledges were acceptable as per Quranic direction.

60

11~12

(Pledge is acceptable from women who) commit not to steal / have illicit relations / kill the offspring / utter slander / forge falsehood.

35.       Qarz (Debt)

35.1     Well to do persons used to exploit the needy and illiterate people through overstating the loans (qarz) amounts and benefiting from usury.   Quranic directions require that all debt transactions be made in writing, and the writer should do the job justly.

2 282 when you contract a debt for a specified term, write it down. And let a scribe write [it] between you in justice
2 282 if the one who has the obligation is of limited understanding or weak or unable to dictate himself, then let his guardian dictate in justice.

36.       Qitaal (Murder / Killing)

36.1     Accidental / unintentional killing (qitaal) of any person also used to trigger chain of killings for generations over long periods of those times.  Legal retribution was prescribed by Quran for all such deaths caused by accident if the heirs so conceded. 

36.2     Intentional killing of any human being (other than during open war, or as punishment e.g. for cold blooded murder) was prohibited through Quran.  Burning in hellfire is promised for deliberate murder.

2 178 prescribed for you is legal retribution for those murdered
2 178 (in remission case) grant any reasonable demand, and compensate with handsome gratitude,
4 29 And do not kill one another of yourself.
6 151 and do not kill your children out of poverty.  And do not approach obvious or concealed immoralities.  And do not kill any except killing it is a [legal] right or duty.
17 31 And do not kill your children for fear of poverty.  Indeed, their killing is ever a great sin.

37        Qulu (Speak)

37.1     Quran directs that while communicating with all humanity in general, and with certain near and dear ones in particular, speak (qulu) soft words of appropriate justice and kindness.

2 83 treat with kindness your parents and kindred, and orphans and needy; speak fair to the people; …………; and practise regular charity.
4 9  speak words of appropriate justice

38.       Riba (Usury)

33.1     It was a general practice for the rich of those times to get richer at the cost and expense of the needy people who were forced to obtain loan from the rich against very high rate of usury.  Quran prohibited that.  Muslims avoid interest-based deals as far as possible.   Quran directs to be very cautious about vices, and advises not even to take any vicious path  (sa’a sabeela 17:32) which leads to the prohibited acts. 

2

278

give up what remains [due to you] of interest

3

130

Do not avail of riba (usury) double and manifold.

38.2     Extract from the last sermon :

All interest and usurious dues accruing from the times of ignorance stand wiped out. And the first amount of interest that I remit is that which Abbas ibn Abd-al Muttalib had to receive. Verily it is remitted entirely.

39.       Sabr (Patience)

39.1     Getting impatient over a matter beyond one’s control is of no practical use.  Remedy for some troubles comes with time and efforts, while in other cases it may not be possible at all.  In all cases, one has to remain patient and wait for results after one has made all out possible efforts.  Getting impatient may lead one to nervous breakdown or permanent anxiety or depression.  Quran directs that patience (sabr) be exercised in all cases [after making all out efforts, of course !].

2 177 (Virtuous are those) who …are patience in poverty and ailment

40.       Sadaqaat (Charities)

40.1     Majority of people was poor and needy in those times.  The rich were therefore encouraged to indulge into charities (sadaqaat) by doling out a part of their wealth to the poor and needy people.  Acts covered by charity include distributing food / clothing / commodities, freeing of slaves, extending debt repayment period, waiving debt, providing facilities to travelers, patronising the orphans.  Other general public welfare deeds like public drinking water wells, shelters for homeless and establishing eductional institutions / hospitals are also sadaqaat.

2 83 and practise regular charity.
2 271 If you disclose your charities it is well, but keeping those confidential (not announcing / boasting) is much better.

41.       Sa’il (Needy)  

41.1     No self-respecting person likes to beg any other person for any help, financial one in particular.  If someone has of necessity to make a petition, Quran directs all persons with resources to treat the petitioner (sa’il) kindly and meet the latter’s need as far as possible, and not to repel him.

93 10 And as for the petitioner, do not repel [him].

42.       Sarqa (Stealing)

42.1     Stealing (sarqa) and robbing have always been dealt with as heinous offences against humanity.  It is usually the stronger ones who rob the weaker ones.  Stealing is also committed by those who want to acquire easy wealth instead of using their own resources to earn it with their hard work.  Quran prescribes rather strict punishment for the crime. 

42.2     Quran does consider the actual circumstances under which a person is enforced to disobey the directions.  Forbidden food is temporary allowed to be taken by a person dying of hunger, provided he partakes of it against his desire or is forced to do so.  In times of draught and famine, the punishment of amputating hand was temporarily suspended as people were forced to steal food to keep themselves alive.

5 38 [As for] the thief, the male and the female, amputate their hands in recompense for what they committed as a deterrent

43.       Shahaada (Testimony)

43.1     Quran directs that persons entrusted with giving evidence / testimony / witness (shahaada) are expected to do so justly, even if it goes against a near relative.

5 106 …..Let them both (of witnesses) swear and commit “We will not exchange our oath for a price, even if he should be a near relative, and we will not withhold the testimony”.
5 107 But in case of suspected perjury, two others may swear under oath that , “Our testimony is truer than their testimony, and we have not transgressed.   Indeed, we would otherwise be wrongdoers.”
6 152 And when you testify, be just, even if [it concerns] a near relative

44.       Sidq (Truth)

44.1     Quran directs mankind to speak the truth (sidq) and the whole truth; and never to mix truth with falsehood or to conceal it.

2 42 Mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal truth.
4 9  speak words of appropriate justice

45.       Soat (Voice / Tone)

45.1     Social etiquettes demand that one should be gentle in voice and tone (soat), except when the occasion does require shouting.  Quran directs mankind to be moderate in pace and voice, and not to sound unpleasant like the voice of donkey.

4 148 (It is undesirable to) public mention (wail loudly) of evil except by one who has been wronged.
31 19 And be moderate in your pace and lower your voice; indeed, the most disagreeable of sounds is the voice of donkeys.

46.       Sufahaa (Dim-wits)

46.1     Nobody with sane mind would like to be or to have a near and dear one as half-wit if the option was available.  Those with weak mind (sufahaa) deserve sympathies and special attention from society.  Quranic directions include taking care of such half-wits and their properties and contracts in the best possible manner.  One is expected to treat them the same way in which one would like his own half-wit children to be treated by others.

2

282

But if the one who is of limited understanding or weak or unable to dictate himself, let his guardian dictate in justice.
4 5 Do not give to weak-minded their property, which is a means of sustenance, but provide to them food and clothing and speak to them kindly
4 9 And let the executors / guardians fear [injustice] as if they [themselves] had left weak offspring behind and feared for them.

 

47.       Ta’awun (Co-operate) 

47.1     Quran directs mankind for cooperation (ta’awun) for righteousness and pious aims and purposes, and to refrain from cooperation towards evils matters and aggression.

47.2     Laws are generally made to achieve peaceful life in the society and for general welfare of its members, by eradicating evils.  Quranic direction implies honouring and following all such laws by the people.

5 2 And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression

 

48.       Tahiyyah (Greetings)

48.1     Good people in society are expected to wish good to others too.  Every effort is made in the socially advanced countries to reform the not-good persons also with the view to make them acceptable part of the society.  Ultimate aim of all goodness is that all people in society should be able to live in peace and harmony. 

48.2     Good people, therefore, when meeting others, greet them and wish them the best.  And what greetings better than wishing peace upon all ?  Quran directs that greetings (tahiyyah)  be wished to each other (in fact one should hasten in greeting others first), and if someone greets you first, you should in return greet in the same or even still better terms.

4 86 And when you are greeted return the greeting in the same or even better manner
24 61  …. when you enter houses, give greetings of peace upon each other

49.       Talaaq (Divorce)

49.1     Women in 6th century were totally dependent upon men for all their basic needs as well as all comforts and luxuries.  Men generally shouldered responsibility as heads of family to provide for all basic necessities and other comforts of life for wife and children, as well as for dependent siblings, parents and other relatives. That is one reason why most of the directions in Qur’an are addressed to men.  It is men who as per Sura 4:34 have been granted more strength compared to women and for what they spend for maintenance from their wealth.  Men also have a degree [in responsibility and authority] over women as per Sura 2:228.

49.2     Divorcing a wife (giving her talaaq), though permissible in islam, yet is considered as the least desirable act, and as per sura 4:35, if dissension is feared between a couple, arbitrators from both parties are to make efforts for any possible reconciliation.

49.3     Reconciling with the ex-wife is permissible twice as per Sura 2:229, and without the need of a fresh contract of marriage if within the prescribed  iddat period (4 months and 10 days, or if the divorcees were pregnant at the divorce time, till termination of pregnancy).  However, after third divorce, re-marriage is not permitted, unless the lady marries someone else.  Only if she is divorced by the other husband, the former husband may remarry her after the iddat period, as per Sura 2:230.

2 226 For those who take an oath for abstention from their wives, a waiting for four months is ordained
2 228 Divorced women are to wait for three menstruations (before remarrying) and it is unlawful to conceal if they are pregnant
2 237 If you divorce wives without mating with them, pay them half their bridal money unless they forego it.
2 232 Do not prevent your divorcees when they marry others with consent.

 

50.       Ujoor (Compensation)

50.1     Women were not treated well prior to reforms brought in by islam.  Bridal gifts ( included in ujoor) meant for wives were taken and retained by the male supporters (father, brother, uncle or guardian).  Reforms brought in by islam introduced the ownership by the bride herself of the bridal gifts and money. 

50.2     Since the bridal money and gifts were irrevocably given to the bride, those could not be demanded back.  The only exception was if the wives indulged into excesses (through adultery or causing deliberate loss to the husband’s property) in which case the bridal gifts could be reclaimed.

2 229 It is unlawful to take back bridal gifts from wives when you divorce them (unless they indulge into excesses).

 

51.       Uqood (Contracts)

51.1     The Arabic word Aqd  very well matches with the English word ‘contract’, an agreement that can be enforced legally.  The contract may relate to employment, commerce, marriage, peace and trade etc.  Whatever the nature of contract, Quran simply directs that all contracts (uqood) be fulfilled / honoured.

51.2     In addition, emphasis has been laid upon fulling all non-contractual agreements and promises (Ahd) too, as the parties thereto are answerable to other parties.

5

1

fulfill [all] contracts

17

34

indeed the promise will be asked about

52.       Walidain (Walidain)

52.1     Love for offspring and taking their good care is natural for all parents (walidain).  However, upon growing up and having their own families, children tend not to pay adequate attention to their parents.  It is not only maintenance expenses alone which the old parent expect from the children, but  love and attention are also expected.  Housing the old parents in old homes, as practised in some societies, does ensure comfortable life, but does not satisfy the need of getting attention and love from own offspring. 

52.2     Apart from taking good care of their parents’ needs, Quran directs all muslims to demonstrate greatest kindness, and never to utter even “uff” if the old people act in unreasonable or annoying matter.

2 83 treat with kindness your parents and kindred
6 151 Treat your parents well, and do not kill your children out of poverty.
17 23 and to parents, good treatment. When one or both of them reach old age [while] with you, say not to them [so much as], “uff,” and do not repel them but speak to them a noble word
17 24 And lower to them the wing of humility out of mercy and say, “My Lord, have mercy upon them as they brought me up [when I was] small.”
29 8 And We have enjoined upon man goodness to parents.
31 14 Be grateful to your parents.  Man has been enjoined upon to take good [care] of parents. The mother carried him and weaned him in 2 years in weakness.  Be grateful to your parents
46 15 And enjoined upon man is good treatment of his parents.  Mother carried him, gave birth, spent gestation and weaning for 30 months with difficulty.

53.       Yataama (Orphans)

53.1     Maltreatment of the orphans (yataama) was commonly practised in those days.  Guardians used to misappropriate / usurp the orphans’ properties and to live with undue luxury at their expense.  They did not act as true Ameen insofar as the property of orphans was in trust with them.  Quranic directions on amaanat have already been mentioned in para 4.  Those relating to orphans include :

2

83

treat with kindness ……… orphans

2

220

Doing good to them is best; if you mix their affairs with yours, they are your brethren

4

2

Hand over to orphans without substituting your own defective properties for their good ones. Consuming their properties into your own is a great sin.

4

3

And if you fear unjust treatment of orphan girls, marry 2 or 3 or 4 of them. But marry only one if you fear of being unjust amongst them or those your right hand possesses as that is preferable to being unjust.

4

5

Do not give to weak-minded their property, which is a means of sustenance, but provide to them food and clothing and speak to them kindly

4

6

Check orphans’ abilities upon their reaching marriageable age, and hand over their properties if you find them of sound judgement.  Self sufficient guardians should refrain from consuming anything though the poor ones may take acceptable extent, but not consume excessively for fear of  having to return it upon the orphans’ growing up.  Take witnesses when returning them the property.

4

9

And let those [executors and guardians] fear [injustice] as if they [themselves] had left weak offspring behind and feared for them.

4

10

Indeed, those who devour the property of orphans unjustly are only consuming into their bellies fire

6

152

Deal with orphans’ property in the best possible manner till he reaches maturity.

17

34

And do not approach the property of an orphan, except in the way that is best, until he reaches maturity.

93

9

So as for the orphan, do not oppress [him].

54.       Zakat (Donation)

54.1     Quran directs that people having wealth over a certain level give zakat / charity to those needy people whose wealth is below that level.  Quran further specifies those persons amongst whom zakat / charity may be distributed.

9

60

Zakat is only for poor, needy, freeing captives, those in debt and those employed to collect [zakat] and for bringing hearts together.

2

177

(Virtuous are those) who … give away zakat / charity.

55.       Zina (Fornication)

55.1     Zina is Arabic word for illicit sexual relations which have already been mentioned at 14 above as fawaahish.  Certain persons used to unduly accuse their wives of having had illicit relations and sometimes denied parenthood of a child born to the wives. 

55.2     Extract from the last sermon :

The child belongs to the marriage-bed and the violator of wedlock shall be stoned.

56.       Zulm (Excess)

56.1     Excess (zulm) of anything is generally considered undesirable.  Quran too prohibits all excesses, including those in eating and fighting. 

2 190 (fight with those who fight you in the name of religion) but do not transgress limits
6 141 Eat of fruit (of trees and crops) when it yields and give its due [zakah] on its harvest. And be not excessive

57.       Extract from last sermon by the prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)

O’ People! listen to my words for I know not if I will meet you at this holy spot after this year.  O’ people! Verily your blood, property and honor are sacred and inviolable (for ever) until you appear before your Lord, as is the sacred inviolability of this day, this month and this place. Verily you will soon meet your Lord and you will be held answerable for your actions.

 

Allah says O’ people I created you from one male and one female and made you into tribes and nations, so as to be known to one another. Verily in the sight of Allah, the most honoured amongst you is the one who is most God-fearing. There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab and for a non-Arab over an Arab, nor for the white over the black nor for the black over the white except in taqwa.

 

All mankind is the progeny of Adam and Adam was fashioned out of clay.  Behold; every claim of privilege whether that of blood or property, is under my heels except that of the custody of the Ka’bah and supplying of water to the pilgrims, O’ people of Quraish, don’t appear (on the Day of Judgement) with the burden of this world around your necks, whereas other people may appear with rewards of the hereafter. In that case I shall avail you naught.

 

Behold! All practices of the days of ignorance are now under my feet. The blood revenges of the days of ignorance are remitted. The first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibn Rabiah whom the Hudhayls killed.  All interest and usurious dues accruing from the times of ignorance stand wiped out. And the first interest that I remit is that which Abbas ibn Abd-al Muttalib had to receive. Verily it is remitted entirely.

 

O’ people! Verily you have got certain rights over your women and your women have certain rights over you. It is your right that they honor their conjugal rights, and not  commit acts of impropriety, which if they do, you are authorized to separate them from your beds and chastise them, but not severely, and if they refrain, then clothe and feed them properly.  Behold! It is not permissible for a woman to give anything from the wealth of her husband to anyone but with his consent.  Treat the women kindly, since they are your helpers and not in a position to manage their affairs themselves. Fear Allah concerning women, for verily you have taken them on the security of Allah and have made their persons lawful unto you by words of Allah.

 

O’ people! Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, has ordained to every one his due share (of inheritance). Hence there is no need (of special) testament for an heir.

 

The child belongs to the marriage-bed and the violator of wedlock shall be stoned.   He who attributes his ancestry to other than his father or claims his client-ship to other than his master, the curse of Allah is upon him.

 

All debts must be repaid, all borrowed property must be returned, gifts should be reciprocated and a surety must make good the loss to the assured.

Beware! No one committing a crime is responsible for it but himself. Neither the child is responsible for the crime of his father, nor the father is responsible for his child’s crime.

 

O’ People! Every Muslim is the brother of every other Muslim, and all the Muslims form one brotherhood. And your slaves; see that you feed them with such food as you eat yourselves, and clothe them with the clothes that you yourselves wear. Nothing of his brother is lawful for a Muslim except what he himself gives willingly. So do not wrong yourselves.

 

Take heed not to go astray after me and (not to) strike one another’s necks. He who (amongst you) has any trust with him, he must return it to its owner.

 

O’ people! Listen and obey, though a mangled Abyssinian slave is appointed your Amir, provided he executes (the Ordinance of) the Book of Allah among you.

 

O’ people! No Prophet would be raised after me and no new Ummah (would be formed) after you.  Verily I have left amongst you that which will never lead you astray, the Book (Quran) which if you hold fast you shall never go astray.

 

And beware of transgressing the limits set in the matters of religion, for it is transgression of (the proper bounds of) religion that brought destruction to many people before you.

 

Verily, the Satan is disappointed at ever being worshipped in this land of yours, but he will be pleased by obedience in anything (short of worship that is) in matters you may be disposed to think insignificant, so beware of him in your matters of religion.

Let him that is present, convey it unto him who is absent, for many people to whom the message is conveyed may be more mindful of it than the audience.

Have I conveyed the message well?   Allah, be my witness, too!

 

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